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Bibliography of Secondary Sources

This bibliography is intended to embrace all fields relevant to Lollard studies. It therefore includes texts and studies about the literary, historical, cultural, and religious milieu of Lollardy as well as texts specifically about the heresy itself.

This list is divided alphabetically into four roughly equal parts: A-D, E-J, K-P, and R-Z.

The Secondary Sources are not subdivided by discipline because it has proven impossible to find categories which do anything but confuse rather than clarify the content of the sources. Some annotations are provided for help. For more help, see Pitard, “A Selected Bibliography for Lollard Studies,” indexed under “Bibliographies and Indices” on the Bibliography of Primary Sources.

This page is kept as one file to allow word searches of the whole list at once (use the “Find” command in your browser). Under any one author’s name, works are listed in chronological order of publication.

Full copies of some out-of-copyright texts are now available for download on this list. Look for the (.pdf) icon. Sizes of downloads are given in megabytes (mb) at the end of the entry. These have beefn bookmarked and reviewed for completeness.

Also see the list of Article Collections (to which essays on this list are now linked) and the Bibliography of Primary Sources. Since these bibliographies are meant to be complete listings of texts and studies relevant to Wycliffism, please let us know of any new references which should be included.

Finally: NOTE that sources appended here as .pdfs are NOT included because they are the best, or even because they are right. It would be a foolish student who referred to (for instance) Gairdner’s century-old study of “Lollardy and the Reformation” for accurate knowledge about the movement. These older studies are included here for those interested in the history of the study of Wycliffism, not for the study of Wycliffism itself. Start instead with Hudson’s 1988 study The Premature Reformation, or look to posts on this site’s homepage for more help.


SECONDARY SOURCES

Actorum Eruditorum quae Lipsiæ Publicantur. Vol. 8. Lipsiæ [Leipzig], 1724. [This is just a selection from this volume, a contemporary review and summary of Lewis’s 1720 The History of the Life and Sufferings of the Reverend and Learned John Wiclif, D.D., included below. (>1 mb)]

Adams, Robert. “Piers’ Pardon and Langland’s Semi-Pelagianism.” Traditio 39 (1983): 367-418.

Alban, Kevin J. “The Treatment of Mary in the Doctrinaleof Thomas Netter as a Resource for Contemporary Theology.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 335-361. [“This chapter examines three episodes from the life of the Blessed Virgin which Thomas Netter uses to illustrate various points in his arguments with the Lollards” (335).]

—. The Teaching and Impact of the “Doctrinale” of Thomas Netter of Walden (c. 1374-1430). Medieval Church Studies 7. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. [Alban shows that Netter was more than just an opponent to Wyclif by placing him and his Doctrinale within his larger European context. According to the abstract, “from his death in 1430 until the middle of the eighteenth century, Netter was a much-quoted and copied author whose exposition of Catholic teaching on subjects such as the Church, religious life, and the sacraments proved useful to many Counter-Reformation polemicists and apologists. This book is the first survey of the whole of the Doctrinale and it argues that there is more to Netter than anti-Lollard polemic. The author examines the principal topics in Netter’s work—God, humanity, Christ, the Church, religious life, prayer, the sacraments—and he makes the case that there is a definite plan which links the various parts of the Doctrinale into a whole giving it a certain theological unity.”]

Alford, John. “Langland’s Theology.” Alford 87-116.

—. “The Design of the Poem.” Alford 29-66.

Aers, David. “Christ’s Humanity and Piers Plowman: Contexts and Political Implications.” The Yearbook of Langland Studies 8 (1995): 107-25.

—. “Vox Populi and the Literature of 1381.” Wallace 432-53.

—. Faith, Ethics, and Church: Writing in England, 1360-1409. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000.

—. “The Sacrament of the Altar in Piers Plowman and the Late Medieval Church in England.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 63-80. [Aers is primarily concerned with Langland, but uses Lollardy at several points. Aers argues that “we must be careful not to read Piers Plowman with the prejudice that it must fit an ‘orthodoxy’ shaped by the Church’s war to eliminate Wycliffite inflections of Christianity. . . . We must not begin our reading of the poem with the assumption that to set aside the dominant, orthodox representation of the sacrament of the altar is to set aside sacramental theology and the sacrament of the alter–even if that is what orthodox polemic was not claiming” (65, 67).]

—. “John Wyclif: Poverty and the Poor.” Yearbook of Langland Studies 17 (2003): 55-72. [The essay, a contribution to a special section on “Langland and Lollardy,” argues that, contrary to opinion of some scholars, Langland and Wyclif didn’t entirely agree on the subjects of evangelical poverty and attention to the contemporary poor. Whereas Langland is more critically reflexive, Wyclif contradicts himself by endorsing the material interests of the secular elites.]

—. “Walter Brut’s Theology of the Sacrament of the Altar.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 115-126.

—. Sanctifying Signs: Making Christian Tradition in Late Medieval England. South Bend, IN: Notre Dame UP, 2004. [Aers begins with orthodox accounts of the sacrament of the altar in order to think about the place of sanctification and signs in works by William Langland, John Wyclif, Walter Brut, and William Thorpe. Central to the book is Aers’s re-conceptualization of the notion of orthodoxy and its attendant term, heresy, terms which have come to define modern accounts of medieval sacramental theology, even where they are acknowledged to be imprecise descriptors of literary texts. As Aers puts it, these “nominalizations can bestow an apparent solidity, an obviousness, on what they refer to, distracting us from the networks of interaction from which these terms are, in a sense, abstractions” (viii); later, he points out that, “a text could draw on traditional resources in a manner that went against the grain of recent and emergent orthodoxy, in ritual practice and theology, without being judged as heretical” (ix). Two key chapters in the book for the study of Wycliffite texts are chs. 3, on Wyclif’s De Eucharistia and 4, on “Early Wycliffite Theology of the Sacrament of the Altar: Walter Brut and William Thorpe.” The chapters are bracketed by two on Piers Plowman.]

—. “The Testimony of William Thorpe: Reflections on Self, Sin, and Salvation.” Studies in Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Texts in Honour of John Scattergood: “the key of all good remembrance”. Ed. Anne Marie D’Arcy and Alan J. Fletcher. Dublin: Four Courts, 2005. 21-34.

Aers, David, and Lynn Staley. The Powers of the Holy: Religion, Politics, and Gender in Late Medieval English Culture. University Park: Penn State Univ. Press, 1996.

Aita, Shuichi. “Negation in the Wycliffite Sermons.” Arthurian and Other Studies Presented to Shunichi Noguchi. Ed. T. Suzuki and T. Mukai. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1993. 241-45.

Allen, Hope Emily. “The Authorship of the Prick of Conscience.” Studies in English and Comparative Literature . . . Presented to Agnes Irwin. Radcliffe College Monographs, No. 15. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1910. 115-170. [>1 mb]

—. Writings Ascribed to Richard Rolle, Hermit of Hampole, and Materials for His Biography. New York: D.C. Heath, 1927.

Ames, Ruth M. “Corn and Shrimps: Chaucer’s Mockery of Religious Controversy.” The Late Middle Ages. Ed. P. Cocozzella. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 1984. 71-88.

Archer, Margaret. “Philip Repingdon, Bishop of Lincoln, and his Cathedral Chapter [1405-19].” University of Birmingham Historical Journal 4 (1953-54): 81-97.

Archer, Rowena. “Piety in Question: Noblewomen and Religion in the Later Middle Ages.” Wood, Women and Religion 118-40.

Arnold, John. “Lollard Trials and Inquisitorial Discourse.” Given-Wilson 81-94. [Arnold argues that, “on the basis of some lexical and manuscript analysis, that there is a greater influence of continental inquisitorial discourse on English heresy prosecutions than has been previously recognized. This has a number of implications for how one might reconsider the English trial evidence, some of which are briefly explored in the essay.”]

Asaka, Yoshiko. “The Problem of Poverty and Literacy: Piers Plowman and the Wycliffites.” Studies in Medieval Language and Literature 11 (1996): 81-93.

Aston, Margaret. “Lollardy and Sedition, 1381-1431.” Past and Present 17 (1960): 1-44. Rpt. in Aston, Lollards and Reformers 1-47.

—. “Lollardy and the Reformation: Survival or Revival?” History 49 (1964): 149-70. Rpt. in Aston, Lollards and Reformers 219-242.

—. “John Wycliffe’s Reformation Reputation.” Past and Present 30 (1965): 23-51. Rpt. in Aston, Lollards and Reformers 243-72.

—. “The Impeachment of Bishop Despenser.” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 38 (1965): 127-48.

—. Thomas Arundel: A Study of Church Life in the Reign of Richard II. Oxford: Clarendon, 1967.

—. “Lollard Women Priests?” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 31 (1980): 441-62. Rpt. in Aston, Lollards and Reformers 49-70.

—. “William White’s Lollard Followers.” Catholic History Review 48 (1982): 469-97. Rpt. in Aston, Lollards and Reformers 71-100.

—. “Devotional Literacy.” Aston, Lollards and Reformers 101-133.

—. “Lollards and Images.” Aston, Lollards and Reformers 135-192.

—. “Lollardy and Literacy.” History 62 (1977): 347-71. Rpt. in Aston, Lollards and Reformers 193-217.

—. “Richard II and the Wars of the Roses.” The Reign of Richard II: Essays in Honour of May McKisack. Ed. F.R.H. Du Boulay and Caroline M. Barron. London: Athlone, 1971. 280-317. Rpt. in Aston, Lollards and Reformers 273-311.

—. “Popular Religious Movements in the Later Middle Ages.” The Christian World: A Social and Cultural History of Christianity. Ed. Geoffrey Barraclough. London: Thames and Hudson, 1981. 157-70. Rpt. in Aston, Faith and Fire 1-26.

—. “‘Caim’s Castles’: Poverty, Politics, and Disendowment.” Dobson 45-81. Rpt. in Aston, Faith and Fire 95-132.

—. “Works of Religious Instruction.” Edwards (1984) 413-432.

—. “Wyclif and the Vernacular.” Hudson and Wilks 281-330. Rpt. in Aston, Faith and Fire 27-72.

—. England’s Iconoclasts. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.

—. “Iconoclasm at Rickmansworth, 1522: Troubles of Churchwardens.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 40 (1989): 524-52. Rpt. in Aston, Faith and Fire 231-260.

—. “Bishops and Heresy: The Defence of the Faith.” Aston, Faith and Fire 73-94.

—. “Corpus Christi and Corpus Regni: Heresy and the Peasant’s Revolt.” Past and Present 143 (1994): 3-47.

—. “Were the Lollards a Sect?” Biller and Dobson 163-92.

—. “Imageless Religion: What Kind of Ideal?” Horrox and Jones 188-203.

—. “Lollard Women.” Wood, Women and Religion 166-85.

—. “Lollards and the Cross.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 99-114.

Auksi, P. “Wyclif’s Sermons and the Plain Style.” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 66 (1975): 5-23.

Aziz, Jeffrey H. “Of grace and gross bodies: Falstaff, Oldcastle, and the fires of reform.” Ph.D. Diss., Univ. of Pittsburgh, 2007. [According to the abstract, “this dissertation recovers Shakespeare’s Sir John Falstaff as a politically radical character, linked to Jack Cade and the plebian revolutionaries of 2 Henry VI , and to 16th-century radical-egalitarian movements including Anabaptism and the “Family of Love.” Working from the earliest texts dealing with Sir John Oldcastle, Falstaff’s historical precedent, this work explores the radical potential of reform beginning with the work of the late-14th-century Oxford theologian John Wyclif. . . . Working from Slavoj Zizek’s claim that political identity is often founded on the fetishistic disavowal of a shared guilt, this work argues that the two parts of Henry IV, in their insistent metadramatic reminders of Oldcastle’s treason and execution, function to disturb the audience’s interpellation as subjects of Tudor-Protestant power.”]

Bacher, John Rea. The Prosecution of Heretics in Medieval England. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1942.

Baker, James. A Forgotten Great Englishman, or, The Life and Work of Peter Payne, The Wycliffite. London: Religious Tract Society, 1894. [ Peter Payne (1.4 mb)]

Bakker, Paul J. J. M. “Réalisme et rémanence. La doctrine eucharistique de Jean Wyclif.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 87-112.

Baker, Robin. “The Hungarian-speaking Hussites of Moldavia and Two English Episodes in their History.” Central Europe 4.1 (May 2006): 3-24. [According to the abstract, “The article considers the origin of the Hungarian-speaking Hussites in Moldavia and the factors that led to their growth, together with the nature of their beliefs. The developments that led to their eventual demise are discussed. The evidence that the prominent English Wycliffe and a leader of the Hussite movement in Bohemia, Peter Payne, stayed among them between 1440 and 1443 is also reviewed. The author concludes by exploring when the Hussites ceased to exist as a discrete cultural community in Moldavia.”]

—. “‘Constantine From England and the Bohemians’: Hussitism, Orthodoxy, and the End of Byzantium.” Central Europe 5.1 (May, 2007): 23-46.

Baldwin, Anna. “The Historical Context.” Alford 67-86.

Ball, R.M. “Thomas Cyrcetur, a Fifteenth-Century Theologian and Preacher.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 37 (1986): 205-39.

Bárány, Attila. “The Crown and the Lollards in Later Medieval England.” Tolerance and Intolerance in Historical Perspective. Ed. Csaba Lévai and Vasile Vese. University of Pisa, 2003. 141-54. [The article explores religious tolerance and intolerance during the reigns of Richard II and Henry IV.]

Barish, Jonas. The Antitheatrical Prejudice. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1981.

Barisone, Ermanno. “Wyclif and his Followers and the Method of Translation.” John Wyclif 143-53.

Barr, Helen.”Wycliffite Representations of the Third Estate.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 197-216.

—. Socioliterary Practice in Medieval England. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001. [Barr examines literary texts “as examples of socioliterary practice. . . . Language exists as a material reality because it is a form of social behavior” (1). “Material language practice” includes various choices writers make (about diction, genre, etc.), and Barr examines a variety of texts to show how later medieval writers deployed these practices to produce social commentary. She looks at, in order, Wynnere and Wastoure, some poems by Hoccleve including the “Poem to Sir John Oldcastle” and parts of the Canterbury Tales; Pearl; Richard the Redeless and Gower’s Cronica Tripertita; the Legend of Good Women; the Nun’s Priest’s Tale; Mum and the Sothsegger and Sir John Clanvowe’s Book of Cupide; and Lydgate’s The Churl and the Bird.]

—. “The Deafening Silence of Lollardy in the Digby Lyric.” Bose and Hornbeck 243-260. [Barr examines the noteworthy absence of references to Lollardy in an early fifteenth-century series of lyric poems extant in Bodleian Library MS Digby 102. She argues that rather than directly condemn Lollards, as much contemporary Benedictine poetry did, these lyrics appropriated and adapted Lollard critiques to promote an orthodox agenda for church reform.]

—.”‘This Holy Tyme’: Present Sense in the Digby Lyrics.” Gillespie and Ghosh 307-323. [Barr argues that the poet’s use of the present tense in the Digby Lyrics projects a unified, ethical kingdom that contrasts with “the divisions, factions, and unrest following the deposition of Richard II and the threats to the institutional church posed by the challenges of the Lollards.”]

Barrows, C.E. “John Wycliffe.” The Baptist Review 1 (1879): 119-135. [A derivative article which repeats many nineteenth-century stereotypes about Wyclif and his life. (>1 mb)]

Bartos, Frantisek Michálek. “Hus a Viklef.” Husitsví a cizina. Prague: Cin, 1931. 20-58.

—. “Hus, Lollardism, and Devotio Moderna in the Fight for a National Bible.” Communio Viatorum 3 (1960): 247-54.

—. The Hussite Revolution, 1424-1437. New York: Columbia UP, 1968.

Baudry, L. “A propos de G. d’Ockham et de Wyclef.” Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge 12 (1939): 231-51.

Beckwith, Sarah. Christ’s Body: Identity, Culture and Society in Late Medieval Writings. London: Routledge, 1993.

—. “Sacrum Signum: Sacramentality and Dissent in York’s Theatre of Corpus Christi.” Copeland 264-288.

—. Signifying God: Social Relation and Symbolic Act in York’s Play of Corpus Christi. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2001. [According to the press release, “In Signifying God, Sarah Beckwith explores the most lavish, long-lasting, and complex form of collective theatrical enterprise in English history: the York Corpus Christi plays. First staged as early as 1376, the plays were performed annually until the late 1500s and involved as much as a tenth of the city in multiple performances at a dozen or more locations. Introducing a radical new understanding of these plays as ‘sacramental theater,’ Beckwith shows how organizing the plays served as a political mechanism for regulating labor, and how theater and sacrament combined in them to do important theological work. She argues, for instance, that the theology of Corpus Christi in the resurrection plays can only be understood as a theatrical exploration of eucharistic absence and presence. Beckwith frames her study with discussions of twentieth-century manifestations of sacramental theater in Barry Unsworth’s novel Morality Play and Denys Arcand’s film Jesus of Montreal, and the connections between contemporary revivals of the York Corpus Christi plays and England’s heritage culture.”]

Bennett, H.S. “The Production and Dissemination of Vernacular Manuscripts in the Fifteenth Century.” The Library: A Quarterly Journal. Fifth Series, vol. 1 (1946/7): 167-78.

Bennett, J.A.W. Chaucer at Oxford and at Cambridge. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1974.

Bennett, Michael. Richard II and the Revolution of 1399. Phoenix Mill, UK: Alan Sutton, 1999.

Bennett, W.F. “Communication and Excommunication in the N-Town Conception of Mary.” Assays 8 (1995): 119-40.

Benrath, Gustav A. “Wyclif und Hus.” Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche 62 (1965): 196-216.

—. Wyclif’s Bibelkommentar. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1966.

—. “Stand und Aufgaben der Wyclif-Forschung.” Theologische-Literaturezeitung 92 (Apr. 1967): 261-64.

—. “Traditionsbewusstsein, Scriftverständnis und Schriftprinzip bei Wyclif.” Zimmermann 359-83.

—. John Wyclif. Gestalten der Kirchengeschichte 4. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1983.

Beonio-Brocchieri Fumigalli, M.T. Wyclif: il Comunismo dei Predestinati. Florence: Sansoni, 1975.

—. “Il pensiero di J. Wyclif nel quadro della filosofia del suo secolo.” John Wyclif 45-60.

Beonio-Brocchieri Fumigalli, M.T., and M. Parodi. Storia della Filosophia Medievale: Da Boezio a Wyclif. Rome: Editori Laterza, 1988.

Bergs, Alexander. “Social Networks in pre-1500 Britain: Problems, Prospects, Examples.” European Journal of English Studies 4 (2000): 239-51. [Bergs conducts three case studies in Middle English sociolinguistics to test the applicability of Lesley Milroy’s (1987) concept of social network to historical data analysis. Aside from the Paston Letters and the Peterborough Chronicle, he examines Lollard texts for “to,” “for to,” and “null” methods of infinitive complement marking, finding that the Wycliffite group developed a distinctive and normative language use that excluded “for to” in many of its functions.]

Bernard, P.P. “Heresy in 14th Century Austria.” Medievalia et Humanistica 10 (1956): 50-67.

—.”Jerome of Prague, Austria and the Hussites.” Church History 27 (1958): 3-22.

Bertelloni, Francisco. “Implicaciones políticos de la eclesologia de Wyclif.” Patristica et Mediaevalia 15 (1994): 45-58.

Bertoldi, Lenoci. Il cristianesimo di John Wyclif. Bari: Milella, 1979.

Besserman, Lawrence. Chaucer’s Biblical Poetics. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1998.

Betteridge, Thomas. “William Tyndale and Religious Debate.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 40.3 (2010): 439-61. [Disagreeing with Rex’s view of lollards as “backward-looking, embattled survivors of a defeated movement” (440), Betteridge argues that their thought did influence later writers: “Tyndale was not a Lollard and yet his work displays a clear an unambiguous engagement with many of Lollardy’s central concerns, above all the aspiration that individual Christians study scripture and debate its meaning with fellow believers” (442). Betteridge considers several lollard sermons and the Testimony of William Thorpe in his discussion.]

Betts, R.R. “English and Czech Influence in the Hussite Movement.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 4th series, 21 (1939): 74-102. Rpt. in Betts, ed. Essays in Czech History. London: Athlone, 1969. 132-59.

—. “Jan Hus.” History 24 (1939): 97-112.

—. “The Influence of Realist Philosophy on Jan Hus and his Predecessors in Bohemia.” The Slavonic and East European Review 29.3 (June, 1951): 402-19.

Biller, Peter. “‘Deep is the Heart of Man, and Inscrutable’: Signs of Heresy in Medieval Languedoc.” Barr and Hutchinson 267-80. [Biller examines the heresies of Languedoc, via several question lists use to interrogate suspected Waldensians, in order to uncover the motivations of the questioners; the nature of the credens, the belief for which they were looking; and the kinds of the evidence they respected.]

Bisson, Lillian M. Chaucer and the Late Medieval World. London: Palgrave, 1998.

Black, Antony. Political Thought in Europe 1250-1450. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.

Black, Merja [Merja Stenroos]. “Lollardy, Language Contact, and the Great Vowel Shift: Spellings in the Defence Papers of William Swinderby.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 99 (1998): 53-69.

Blake, Norman. “Varieties of Middle English Religious Prose.” Chaucer and Middle English Studies in Honour of Rossell Hope Robbins. Ed. Beryl Rowland. Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1974. 348-356.

Blamires, Alcuin. “The Wife of Bath and Lollardy.” Medium Aevum 58.2 (1989): 224-242.

—. “Women Preaching in Medieval Orthodoxy, Heresy, and Saints Lives.” Viator 26 (1995): 135-52. [Discusses the development of medieval commentary about women’s preaching, some of which are contradictory, and how this influences depictions in saint’s lives and by Wycliffites.]

Block, Edward A. John Wyclif: Radical Dissenter. Humanities Monograph Series 1:1. San Diego: San Diego State College Press, 1962.

Bloomfield, Morton. “Fourteenth-Century England: Realism and Rationalism in Wyclif and Chaucer.” English Studies in Africa 16.2 (1973): 59-70.

Blythe, James. Ideal Government and the Mixed Constitution in the Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1992.

Bobrick, Benson. Wide as the Waters: The Story of the English Bible and the Revolution It Inspired. New York: Penguin, 2001.

Boffey, J., and John J. Thompson. “Anthologies and Miscellanies: Production and Choice of Texts.” Griffiths and Pearsall 279-315.

Böhringer, Friedrich. Die Vorreformatoren des vierzehnten und fünfzehnten Jahrunderts, Erste Hälfte: Johannes von Wycliffe. Zurich, Meyer & Zeller, 1856. [For a contemporary review, with 10 other publications, see “Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics,” British Quarterly Review 28 (1858), included below.]

Boitani, Piero. English Medieval Narrative in the 13th and 14th Centuries. Trans. J.K. Hall. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982.

Boreczky, Elemér. John Wyclif’s Discourse on Dominion in Community. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2008. [According to the book’s notes, “This book reconstructs Wyclif’s discourse on the theological and political consequences of his radically new insight into the integrity of man and nature as regards the good, free and beautiful life, communicated to his contemporary scholastic and lay audience. His theological, legal and political vision of restoring original justice through the spiritual reality and sanctity of persona humana in every man, as well as in the community, by the law of love and the use and enjoyment of dominion in community, is conveyed through abundant quotes from his works.”]

Borinski, Ludwig. Wyclif, Erasmus, und Luther: vorgelegt in der Sitzung vom 1. Juli 1988. Joachim Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften e.V., Hamburg. Jg. 6, H.2. Göttingen: Vandehoeck & Ruprecht, 1988.

Borroff, Marie. Traditions and Renewals: Chaucer, the Gawain-Poet, and Beyond. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. [This study presents Chaucer as having “reformist sympathies.” Of particular interest here for Lollard studies is the first chapter, “Dimensions of Judgment in the Canterbury Tales: Friar, Summoner, Pardoner, Wife of Bath,” in which Borroff locates an allusion to Wycliffite polemic against the friars in the Summoner’s Tale. This opens out to a reconsideration of anti-fraternalism in Fragment D.]

Bose, Mishtooni. “Two Phases of Scholastic Self-Consicousness: Reflections on Method in Aquinas and Pecock.” Aquinas as Authority. Ed. Harm Goris et al. Leuven: Peeters, 2002 187-201. [W.C. Greet, the editor of Pecock’s Reule of Crysten Religioun remarked in his introduction to that work that its purpose was similar to that of Aquinas’s Summa Contra Gentiles. Following up this suggestion, this article argues that Pecock’s concern with literary and theological method is part of an attempt to recover (and “translate” into a vernacular setting) the vitality of academic discussions from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, a period during which the role of argumentation in theology still required explicit consideration and some defence. Such concerns culminated in Aquinas’s “rhetorical” sensibility, his engagements with “rational persuasion,” his concern with effective methods of disputation with heretics and infidels and his appreciation of the value of “rationes” in theological discourse.]

—. “The Issue of Theological Style in Late Medieval Disputations.” Disputatio 5 (2002): 1-21. [This article emphasizes the awareness among some “humanists” and “scholastics” of the intrinsically persuasive qualities of much theological discourse (disputation in particular). In particular, it discusses Jakob Wimpheling’s prefatory material to his edition of a medieval classic, Petrus Aureolus’s Compendium Biblie Totius (1319), which is subtle and discriminating in its appreciation of the Ciceronian and Augustinian strands of Aureolus’s scholarship. Wimpheling’s defence of scholastic dialectic was grounded in what he believed to be dialectical tactics used by Christ, St. Paul and Augustine, and he argued that it remained an essential component in the church’s discursive armoury against heresy. Wimpheling’s sensitivity regarding the persuasive value of dialectic is complemented by passages in Erasmus which emphasise continuity rather than conflict between the methods of argumentation used by patristic and medieval theologians in their encounters with heresy.]

—. “Reginald Pecock’s Vernacular Voice.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 217-236.

—. “The Opponents of John Wyclif.” Levy 407-455.

—. “Religious Authority and Dissent.” In Peter Brown, ed. A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture, c. 1350-c. 1500. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 42. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007. 40-55.

—. “Writing, Heresy, and the Anticlerical Muse.” In Elaine Treharne and Greg Walker, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2010. 276-96.

—. “Netter as Critic and Practitioner of Rhetoric: The Doctrinale as Disputation.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 233-448. [Noting that Netter follows a “pioneering approach” to commentary that relies on contextualizing patristic authorities, Bose also says that Netter “implicitly invites readers to check and appraise, rather than merely to simply endorse, his use of sources,” and thereby lays “the foundations of a more radical critical inquiry” (234). The article, then, concentrates “on examining more fully the methodological implications of Netter’s commitment to a fully contextualized reading of his patristic authorities” (234). Specifically, she outlines “some of the fundamental questions about method raised by Netter’s use of St. Augustine” (236).]

—.  “Reversing the Life of Christ: Dissent, Orthodoxy, and Affectivity in Late Medieval England.” Johnson and Westphall 55-77. [Bose investigates how Wycliffite and other reformist writers used the life of Christ to “anchor, define, and legitimize” their positions, describing Christ’s vita as common discursive ground for scholastic theologians. In addition to Wycliffite sermons, the essay analyzes works by Reginald Pecock and Nicholas Love’s Mirror.]

Bostick, Curtis V. The Anti-Christ and the Lollards: Apocalypticism in Late Medieval and Reformation Thought. Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought, vol. 70. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1998.

Bowers, John. “Piers Plowman and the Police: Notes toward a History of the Wycliffite Langland.” Yearbook of Langland Studies 6 (1992): 1-50.

—. “The Politics of Pearl.” Exemplaria 7 (1995): 419-41.

—. The Politics of Pearl: Court Poetry in the Age of Richard II. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 2000.

—. Chaucer and Langland: The Antagonistic Tradition. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 2007.

Bowman, Glen. “William Tyndale’s Eucharistic Theology: Lollard and Zwinglian Influences.” Anglican and Episcopalian History 66 (1997): 422-34.

Boyd, Beverly. “Wyclif, Joan of Arc, and Margery Kempe.” Mystics Quarterly 12.3 (Sept. 1986): 112-118.

Boyle, L.E. “Innocent III and Vernacular Versions of Scripture.” Walsh and Wood 97-107.

Bradley, Christopher G. “Censorship and Cultural Continuity: Love’s Mirror, The Pore Caitif, and Religious Experience Before and After Arundel.” Gillespie and Ghosh 115-132. [Bradley argues for more attention to religious experience in the study of vernacular theology and models such study with his comparative reading of Love’s Mirror and the Pore Caitif. He emphasizes continuities in the two works’ pastoral aims, countering Nicholas Watson’s assertion that the two works address lay readers in contrasting ways.]

—. “The Letter of Richard Wyche: An Interrogation Narrative.” PMLA 127.3 (2012): 626-642. [Bradley translates the only surviving copy of the Letter of Richard Wyche from Latin into modern English. This edition includes a brief introduction describing the Wycliffite heresy as well as the context of Wyche’s imprisonment and interrogation that he recounts in the letter.]

Brady, Sr. M. Theresa. “The Pore Caitif: an Introductory Study.” Traditio 10 (1954): 529-48.

—. “The Apostles and the Creed in Manuscripts of the Pore Caitif.” Speculum 32 (1957): 323-325.

—. “Rolle’s Form of Living and the Pore Caitif.” Traditio 36 (1980): 426-35.

—. “The Seynt and His Boke: Rolle’s Emendatio Vitae and the Pore Caitif.” Fourteenth Century English Mystics Newsletter 7.1 (1981): 20-28.

—. “Rolle and the Pattern of Tracts in the Pore Caitif.” Traditio 39 (1983): 456-65.

—. “Lollard Sources of the Pore Caitif.” Traditio 44 (1988): 389-418.

—. “Lollard Interpolations and Omissions in Manuscripts of the Pore Caitif.” De Cella in Saeculum: Religious and Secular Life and Devotion in Late Medieval England. Ed. Michael G. Sargent. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1989. 183-203.

Brandt, Miroslav. Wyclifova hereza i socijalni pokreti u Splitu krajem XIV. st. Zagreb: Kultura, 1955.

—. “Wyclifitism in Dalmatia in 1383.” Slavonic and East European Review 36 (1957-58): 58-68.

Brandt, W.J. “Church and Society in the Late Fourteenth Century.” Medievalia et Humanistica 13 (1960): 56-67.

—. London and the Reformation. Oxford: Clarendon, 1989.

Breck, Allen duPont. “The Manuscripts of Wyclif’s De Trinitate.” Medievalia et Humanistica o.s. 7 (1952): 56-70.

—. “John Wyclyf on Time.” Cosmology, History, and Theology. Ed. W. Yourgrau and Allen d. Breck. New York: Plenum Press, 1977. 211-18.

Breeze, A. “The Wycliffite Bible Prologue on the Scriptures in Welsh.” Notes and Queries 46.1 (1999): 16-17. [Breeze argues that the Bible of the “Britons” referred to in the General Prologue must be the Welsh Y Bibyl Ynghymrae, a translation of the Promptuarium Bibliae by Peter of Poitiers, one among several religious texts available to medieval readers of Welsh.]

Brewer, Thomas. Memoir of the Life and Times of John Carpenter. London, 1856. [2.5 mb]

Brockwell, Charles W., Jr. Bishop Reginald Pecock and the Lancastrian Church: Securing the Foundations of Cultural Authority. Texts and Studies in Religion 25. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon, 1985.

Brooks, Douglas A. “Sir John Oldcastle and the Construction of Shakespeare’s Authorship.” Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 38 (1998): 333-361.

Brown, Andrew. Popular Piety in Late Medieval England: The Diocese of Salisbury, 1250-1550. Oxford: Clarendon, 1995.

—. Church and Society in England 1000-1500. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. [This book considers the relationship between the church, society and religion across five centuries of change. Brown examines how the teachings of an increasingly universal Church were applied at a local level and how social change shaped the religious practices of the laity. His approach encompasses the structures of corporate religion, the devotional practices surrounding cults and saints, the effects of literacy (not least on the development of heresy), and how gender, class and political power affected and fragmented the expression of religion. Of particular interest to students of Lollardy is chapter 6, “Reforming the ‘Inner’ Life: Orthodoxy and Heresy,” in which Brown questions the views of recent historians, especially historians of the fifteenth century, that the nature of English society was essentially persecutory with respect to lay devotional practices.]

Brown, David. “Wiclif and Hus.” British and Foreign Evangelical Review 33 (1884): 572-8.

Browne, William Hand. “A Scottish Wycliffite New Testament.” Modern Language Notes 12.3 (Mar. 1897): 96. [“A MS. of the New Testament, in the Scottish dialets, in the possession of Lord Amherst of Hackne, on examination proves to be a Scottish rescension of Wyclif’s version.”]

Bruce, Frederick F. “John Wycliffe and the English Bible.” Churchman 98.4 (1984): 294-306.

Brungs, Alexander. “On Biblical Logicism: Wyclif, ‘Virtus Sermons,’ and Equivocation.” Recherches de théologie et philosophie médiévales 76 (2009): 199-244.

Bryan, Jennifer. Looking Inward: Devotional Reading and the Private Self in Late Medieval England. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. [Bryan creatively yokes together a range of under-examined vernacular devotional texts (the Chastizing of God’s Children, The Pricking of Love, A Talking of the Love of God, the Myroure of Oure Lady and Nicholas Love’s Mirror), some better-known mystical texts (Julian of Norwich’s Showings–which gets a chapter–and The Cloud of Unknowing) and texts by more literary writers (Hoccleve–who also gets a chapter–and Lydgate) to examine the ways in which readers learn to understand how readers transformed “individual spiritual experience into cultural practice” (4), that is, how readers negotiate between these inward visions and their public, social selves.]

Buddensieg, R. Johann Wiclif und seine Zeit. Schriften des Vereins für Reformationsgeschichte, 8-9. Halle: Verein für Reformationsgeschichte, 1885.

Burgess, Clive. “A Hotbed of Heresy? Fifteenth Century Bristol and Lollard Reconsidered.” Clark 43-62.

Burrows, Montagu. Wiclif’s Place in History: Three Lectures Delivered before the University of Oxford in 1881. London: W. Isbister, 1882. [A commentary on Wyclif and studies of his life just before the quincentary of his death. For a contemporary review, see “Wiclif and his Works,” included below. (1.6 mb)]

Bushill, T. John Wycliffe, Patriot and Reformer. Coventry, 1885. [One of several derivative biographies published to mark the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death.]

Butterworth, Charles C. The Literary Lineage of the King James Bible, 1340-1611. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1941.

Butterworth, Charles C., and A.G. Chester. George Joye 1495 (?)-1553. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1962.

Cadman, S. Parkes. The Three Religious Leaders of Oxford and their Movements. New York: Macmillan, 1916. [10.4 mb]

Caldwell, Ellen. “‘Banish All the Wor(l)d’: Falstaff’s Iconoclastic Threat to Kingship in I Henry IV.” Renascence 59.4 (Summer, 2007): 219-246. [“The article examines the iconoclastic threat posed by Sir John Falstaff to kingship in William Shakespeare’s I Henry IV. In the play, Falstaff represents a reformationist distrust of the image and reflects. Lord Cobham or John Castle, the leader of the Lollard rebellion and friend of the young Prince Henry, the fictional character of Falstaff pricks the prince’s conscience about his family’s theft of the crown. The play demonstrates two central Protestant theological tenets in its exposition of monarchy: first is the discrediting of transubstantiation or the notion that the appearances of bread and wine remain even though the substances are transformed into the body and blood of Christ and second, image-making and false pretenses have created a false religion of the state.”]

Cammack, Melvin M. John Wyclif and the English Bible. New York: American Tract Society, 1938.

Campbell, Kirsty. “Reginald Pecock’s vision of religious education for ‘alle cristen peple’ in fifteenth-century England.” Ph.D. Diss., University of Toronto, 2007. [According to the abstract, “This dissertation points to the ambitious nature of Pecock’s comprehensive program for lay education, investigating the reasons why Pecock felt so strongly about the need for his rational, philosophical texts among pious lay readers. The first two chapters examine continuities between the sophisticated religious prose of the late fourteenth century and Pecock’s corpus in terms of the way that these works sought to influence the pious laity through instruction on devotional practices . . . . Chapter three analyzes Pecock’s position on the controversial issue of lay Bible reading, highlighting his efforts to draw readers away from the Lollard textual community into a new community structured around the authoritative book of reason. Chapter four focuses on the relations that Pecock envisions between members of this textual community . . . . The fifth chapter studies Pecock’s views on the best way to educate the lay reader to ensure the most stability, spiritual profit, and harmony within the community, focusing on the way Pecock structures his works to facilitate the integration of various groups in the community through the progress and evolution of the lay reader.”]

Campbell, Kirsty. The Call to Read: Reginald Pecock’s Books and Textual Communities. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 2010. [Abstract: “Campbell argues that Pecock’s fascinating attempt to educate the laity is . . . an attempt to establish and unite a community of readers around his books, to influence and thus change the ways they understand their faith, the world, and their place in it. The aim of Pecock’s educational project is to harness the power of texts to effect religious change. Combining traditional approaches with innovative thinking on moral philosophy, devotional exercises, and theological doctrine, Pecock’s works of religious instruction are his attempt to reform a Christian community threatened by heresy through reshaping meaningful Christian practices and forms of belief. Campbell’s book will be of interest to scholars and students of medieval literature and culture, especially those interested in fifteenth-century religious history and culture.”]

Campi, Luigi. “‘Iusti sunt omnia’: Note a margine del ‘De statu innocencie’ di John Wyclif.” Dianoia: Annali di Storia della Filosofia 12 (Nov. 2007): 87-123. [“The aim of my paper is to analyse Wyclif’s De statu innocencie (c. 1375-1376). Here Wyclif paints the features of man in the Edenic state, connecting them to some remarkable themes concerning nature, dominion, grace and free will. Lacking nothing, man originally had a perfect constitution and a natural dominion on all creatures, planned to serve God’s glory. This state is used as a standard of measure of the fallen man’s condition. My primary concern shall be to show how this treatise can be considered as an important laboratory where Wyclif tests the concepts he was working on.”]

—. “Yet Another ‘Lost’ Chapter of Wyclif’s Summa de Ente: Notes on Some Puzzling References to Tractatus 131.” Vivarium 49 (2011): 353-67. Abstract: “This paper deals with three references found in John Wyclif’s unpublished De scientia Dei to a certain Tractatus 13, whose title relates to the position it holds in the first book of Wyclif’s Summa de Ente. They are puzzling references, since the first book of the Summa is made up barely of seven tracts. In this paper I argue that the three references are actually linking devices to the final section of the De ente praedicamentali (ch. 19-22). Moreover, I maintain that, at the time of the compilation of his De scientia Dei, Wyclif conceived the first book of his Summa as containing thirteen tracts, the last seven of which later collected under a single item (viz. the De ente praedicamen- tali). This allows for a broader and more consistent account of the order and dating of the De scientia Dei (1372) and other Wyclif’s writings.”]

—. “‘But and Alle Thingus in Mesure, and Noumbre, and Peis Thou Disposedist’: Some Notes on the Role of Wisdom 11, 21 in Wyclif’s Writings.” Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales 80.1 (2013): 109-143. [The essay discusses Wyclif’s use of Wisdom 11:21, a passage of scripture that, according to Campi, Wyclif regarded as “the most difficult verse in the whole of scripture…due to the theoretical content it conveys, which relates to the issue of the creative, legislative and redemptive order imposed by God.”]

—. “‘In ipso sunt idem esse, vivere, et intelligere’: Notes on a Case of Textual Bricolage.” Viator 45.3 (2014), 89-100. [The article discusses the sources for a textual bricolage in Wyclif’s De scientia Dei pertaining to divine being, life, and thought. Campi concludes that Wyclif’s source was likely a liturgical office by Stephen of Liège. An appendix considers Wyclif’s statement about the agreement of philosophy, theology, and church tradition on the unity of divine being, life, and thought.]

—. “Was the Early Wyclif a Determinist? Concerning an Unnoticed Level within His Taxonomy of being.” Vivarium 52.1-2 (2014): 102-46. [To counter the claim that John Wyclif was a determinist, this article argues that Wyclif indeed distinguished between divine cognition of creatures (rationes) and the production of essences (exemplaria). According to Campi’s study of edited and unedited texts, Wyclif’s standard taxonomy sometimes included a level of being both eternal and contingent, the esse intentionale.]

Cannon, H.L. “The Poor Priests: A Study in the Rise of English Lollardy.” Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1899 1 (1900): 451-82. [>1 mb]

Cannon, W.R. “John Wyclif and John Hus.” Emory University Quarterly 15 (1959): 80-87.

Capes, W.W. The English Church in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. A History of the English Church, vol. 3. London, 1900. [6.1 mb]

Carley, James P. “‘Cum excuterem puluerem et blattis’: John Bale, John Leland, and the Chronicon tinemutensis coenobii.” Barr and Hutchinson 163-87. [Carley considers the work of the two Tudor antiquarians in “dusty and insect-ridden” monastic libraries, especially “their differing responses to a product of the [St. Alban’s school], now contained in BL, MS Cotton Faustina B. ix,” some of whose contents they attributed to the St. Alban’s monk William Rashinger. Carley traces the use of the manuscript in Bale’s Index Britanniae Scriptorum and Leland’s De viris illustribus, including information it contains on Wyclif.]

Carlson, David R. “Whethamstede on Lollardy: Latin Styles and the Vernacular Cultures of Early Fifteenth-Century England.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 102.1 (Jan. 2003): 21-41. [The subject of the paper is a Latin, anti-lollard poem written by John Whethamstede between about 1427 and 1443. According to Carlson, “dominant scholasticism and emergent humanism, the two Latin styles current in England during the fifteenth century [ . . . ] have long been represented as antithetical. [ . . . ] However, the competition between the two styles [ . . . ] obscures their kinship and common interest. [ . . . ] Whethamstede’s poem shows how in England the two Latin styles could work together in opposing the dissident tradition of vernacular theology, as represented in the lollard movement” (21-2). The article includes, as an Appendix, an edition of the poem in Latin, with a translation.]

Carr, J.W. Über das Verhältnis der Wiclifitschen und der Purvey’schen Bibelübersetzung zur Vulgata. Leipzig, 1902.

Carre, Meyrick H. Realists and Nominalists. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1946.

Carrick, J.C. Wycliffe and the Lollards. New York: Scribners, 1908. [3.8 mb]

Catto, Jeremy I. “William Woodford, O.F.M. (c. 1330-c. 1397).” D.Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford, 1969.

—. “Religion and the English Nobility in the Later Fourteenth Century.” History and Imagination: Essays in Honour of H.R. Trevor-Roper. Ed. H. Lloyd-Jones et al. London: Duckworth, 1981. 43-55.

—. “John Wyclif and the Cult of the Eucharist.” Walsh and Wood 269-86.

—. “Religious Change under Henry V.” Henry V: The Practice of Kingship. Ed. G.L. Harriss. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1985. 97-115.

—. “Wyclif and the Lollards: Dissidents in an Age of Faith.” History Today 37 (November 1987): 46-52.

—. “Some English Manuscripts of Wyclif’s Latin Works.” Hudson and Wilks 353-359.

—. “Sir William Beauchamp between Chivalry and Lollardy.” The Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood III: Papers from the Fourth Strawberry Hill Conference 1988. Ed. C. Harper-Bill and R. Harvey. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1990. 39-48.

—. “Wyclif and Wycliffism at Oxford 1356-1430.” Catto and Evans 175-261.

—. “Theology After Wycliffism.” Catto and Evans 263-280.

—. “Fellows and Helpers: The Religious Identity of the Followers of Wyclif.” Biller and Dobson 141-62.

—. “The King’s Government and the Fall of Pecock, 1457-58.” Rulers and Ruled in Late Medieval England: Essays Presented to Gerald Harriss. Ed. R. Archer and S. Walker (London: Hambledon, 1995) 201-22.

—. “A Radical Preacher’s Handbook.” English Historical Review 115 (Sept. 2000): 893-905.

—. “Thomas Moston and the Teaching of Wyclif’s Logic in Oxford, c. 1410.” Barr and Hutchinson 120-130. [Moston, omitted from the Biographical Register of the University of Oxford, was one of Wyclif’s scholarly disciples. Catto considers him Magdalen Coll. MS lat. 92, a collection he compiled of work by John Tarteys, Robert Allington, William Milverly, Richard Lavenham, and a few anonymous tracts. Catto summarizes several of the anonymous texts which comment on Wyclif’s teachings on universals.]

—. “Shaping the Mixed Life: Thomas Arundel’s Reformation.” Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 94-108.

—. “1349-1412: Culture and History.” In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Mysticism. Ed. Samuel Fanous and Vincent Gillespie. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2011. 113-132.

—. “After Arundel: The Closing or the Opening of the English Mind?” Gillespie and Ghosh 43-54.
[Refuting the claim that Arundel’s Constitutions muted England’s intellectual culture in the fifteenth century, Catto argues that “there is abundant evidence of vitality on the part of the educated laity and their largely monastic suppliers of spiritual instruction.” He considers the shift away from speculative theology in light of a larger continental tradition and discusses Parisian influences on Lancastrian literature.]

Catto, Jeremy, Pamela Gradon, and Anne Hudson. Wyclif and His Followers: An Exhibition to Mark the 600th Anniversary of the Death of John Wyclif, December 1984-April 1985. Oxford: Bodleian Library, 1984.

Cesalli, Laurent. “Le ‘pan propositionnalisme’ de Jean Wyclif.” Vivarium 43.1 (2005): 124-46. [(In French). This article (as with P. V. Spade’s, below) appears in an issue of Vivarium dedicated to medieval realism; other essays in the volume, aside from these two, specifically concern Scotus, Sharpe, and Holcot. According to the author’s abstract, “This paper shows how Wyclif is able at the same time (i) to claim that whatever is is a proposition (‘pan-propositionalism’) and (ii) to develop a nontrivial theory of propositional truth and falsity. The study has two parts: 1) Starting from Wyclif’s fivefold propositional typology—including a propositio realis (real proposition) and a sic esse sicut propositio significat (a fact)—we will analyse (a) the three different kinds of real predication, (b) the distinction between primary and secondary signification of propositions (the latter being an instantiation of the former) and (c) the status of logical truth as opposed to (but depending on) metaphysical truth. Furthermore, the notion of ens logicum (as intermediate between statements and facts) will be compared to Walter Burley’s propositio in re of which it appears to be a close analogon. 2) The second part deals with two semantic and metaphysical implications of the ‘pan-propositionalism’: (a) the extended notion of being (ampliatio entis) called upon to explain the truth of so-called non-standard propositions (e.g. past, future, modal) and (b) the relation between contents of the divine mind as ‘arch-truth-makers’ and eternal as well as contingent truths.”]

—. “Intentionality and Truth-Making: Augustine’s Influence on Burley and Wyclif’s Propositional Semantics.” Vivarium 45 (2007): 283-97. [“Walter Burley (1275-c.1344) and John Wyclif (1328-1384) follow two clearly stated doctrinal options: on the one hand, they are realists and, on the other, they defend a correspondence theory of truth that involves specific correlates for true propositions, in short: truth-makers. Both characteristics are interdependent: such a conception of truth requires a certain kind of ontology. This study shows that a) in their explanation of what it means for a proposition to be true, Burley and Wyclif both develop what we could call a theory of intentionality in order to explain the relation that must obtain between the human mind and the truth-makers, and b) that their explanations reach back to Augustine, more precisely to his theory of ocular vision as exposed in the De trinitate IX as well as to his conception of ideas found in the Quaestio de ideis.”]

—. “Wyclif on the Felicity (Conditions) of Marriage.” Vivarium 49 (2011): 258-74. [Abstract: ” Regarding marriage, John Wyclif defends the following position: strictly speaking, no words or any kind of sensory signs would be needed, since the consensus of the spouses together with God’s approbation would suffice for the accomplishment of marriage. But if words do have to be pronounced, then the appropriate formula should not be in the present, but in the future. In the following, I shall discuss Wyclif’s arguments by comparing them with some other medieval positions, as well as with some elements of contemporary theories of speech acts. It will appear that in his analysis of the only sacrament which is a “social act“ in the literal sense of the expression, Wyclif (i) clearly acknowledges the central role of individual intentions behind (linguistic) conventions, and (ii) carefully distinguishes between the different, chronologically disparate acts involved in marriage and their respective (semantic, psychological and factual) felicity conditions.”]

Chadwick, Dorothy. Social Life in the Days of Piers Plowman. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1922. [2.5 mb]

Chambers, R.W. “On the Continuity of English Prose from Alfred to More and His School.” in The Life and Death of Sr. Thomas More . . . by Nicholas Harpsfield. Ed. E.V. Hitchcock. EETS o.s. 186. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1932. xlv-clxxiv.

Chaplin, W.N. “Lollardy and the Great Bible.” Church Quarterly Review 128 (1939): 210-37.

Chapman, W. The Life and Times of John Wyclif, the Herald of the Reformation. London, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death.]

Cheyney, Edward P. The Recantation of the Early Lollards.” American Historical Review 4 (1899): 423-38. [>1 mb]

Christianson, Gerald. “Wyclif’s Ghost: The Politics of Reunion at the Council of Basel.” Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum 17 (1985): 193-208.

Cigman, G. “The Preacher as Performer: Lollard Sermons as Imaginative Discourse.” Literature and Theology 2 (1988): 69-82.

—. “Luceat Lux Vestra: The Lollard Preacher as Truth and Light.” Review of English Studies 40:160 (1989): 479-96.

—. “‘The Keyes of Kunnynge’: Unlocking the Texts.” Die deutsche Predigt im Mittelalter. Ed. V. Mertens and H-J. Schiewer. Tubingen: Max Niemeyer, 1992. 256-67.

—. “Bounden as a Sheep.” Notes and Queries 41 (239):1 (1994): 15.

Clark, Henry W. History of English Nonconformity from Wyclif to the Close of the Nineteenth Century. Vol. 1, From Wyclif to the Restoration. London: Chapman and Hall, 1911. [Also see Vaughan, English Nonconformity, below, for another history which posits Wyclif as an origin of English religious nonconformity. (8.4 mb)]

Clark, James. G. A Monastic Renaissance at St. Albans: Thomas Walsingham and his Circle c. 1350-1440. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005. [This is a study of Walsingham, not just a historican but also a classical scholar. His chronicles provide crucial evidence for Wycliffism. Clark has also published a translation of Walsingham’s Chronica Maiora, listed on the Bibliography of Primary Sources.]

Clark, John P.H. “Walter Hilton in Defense of Religious Life and the Veneration of Images.” Downside Review 103 (1985): 1-25.

Clebsch, W.A. England’s Earliest Protestants 1520-1535. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1964.

Clopper, Lawrence. “Miracula and The Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge.” Speculum 65 (1990): 878-905.

—. “Langland’s Persona: An Anatomy of the Mendicant Orders.” Justice and Kerby-Fulton 144-184.

—. “Communitas: The Play of Saints in Late Medieval and Tudor England.” Mediaevalia 18 (1995 [for 1992]): 81-109.

—. “Songes of Rechelesnesse”: Langland and the Franciscans. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1997.

—. Drama, Play, and Game: English Festive Culture in the Medieval and Early Modern Period. Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 2001. [The book demonstrates that the theatrum repudiated by medieval clerics was not “theater” as we understand the term today. Clopper contends that critics have misrepresented Western stage history because they have assumed that theatrum designates a place where drama is performed. While theatrum was thought of as a site of spectacle during the Middle Ages, the term was more closely connected with immodest behavior and lurid forms of festive culture. Clerics were not opposed to liturgical representations in churches, but they strove ardently to suppress May games, ludi, festivals, and liturgical parodies. Medieval drama, then, stemmed from a more vernacular tradition than previously acknowledged-one developed by England’s laity outside the boundaries of clerical rule. Of special interest here is a chapter on the Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge.]

—. “Franciscans, Lollards, and Reform.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 177-196.

—. “Is the Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge a Lollard Tract against Devotional Drama”? Viator 34 (2003): 229-71.

Cole, Andrew. “Trifunctionality and the Tree of Charity: Literary and Social Practice in Piers Plowman.” ELH: A Journal of English Literary History 62 (1995): 1-27.

—. “Chaucer’s English Lesson.” Speculum 77.4 (2002): 1128-67. [When Chaucer expostulates on Latin to English translation in the Prologue to the Treatise on the Astrolabe, he provocatively follows a line of reasoning instanced in multiple Wycliffite tracts on translation. Because many of the terms Chaucer uses in the Prologue are also central to the General Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible, Chaucer appears to respond to this particular text, which was probably read within his social circle, rich in opportunities to acquire such vernacular material. Broadly speaking, he gleans vernacular terms and arguments of recent coinage that represent valued practices within a community of practitioners who have distinguished themselves, for better and for worse, as innovators in English. This is, in other words, Chaucer aligning himself with his contemporaries in ways quite different from both his crypto-, but mostly passive-aggressive, gestures toward Gower or Langland and from his curt and jocund references to “Lollere[s],” the contemporary pejorative term for Wycliffites. Chaucer realizes the self-promotional value in identifying with an emergent interpretive community of English translators, inclusive of the Wycliffites and Trevisa. His doing so was a necessity: after all, if the surviving MSS are any indication, his Treatise ran in almost twice as many manuscripts than any other text, save the Tales.]

—. “Introduction: Langland and Lollardy: The Form of the Matter.” The Yearbook of Langland Studies 17 (2003): 1-6. This essay is an introduction to a special section on “Langland and Lollardy.”

—. “William Langland’s Lollardy.” The Yearbook of Langland Studies 17 (2003): 25-54. [This essay, a contribution to a special section on “Langland and Lollardy,” argues that Langland engages with “lollard” genres in order to think through critiques of theoretical poverty. Cole points out that Langland’s use of “loller(e)” in the C-text may seem “late, inapposite, and idiosyncratic” because modern critics have romanticized 1382 as the originary “moment of heresiogenesis” (25). He goes on to argue that Lollardy emerges from Wycliffism, but it also goes beyond “a set of classifiable (and condemnable) beliefs” (27), offering a kind of “generic consistency” for texts, both Wycliffite and not, written both before and after 1382.]

—. “William Langland and the Invention of Lollardy.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 37-58.

—. Literature and Heresy in in the Age of Chaucer. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008.

—. “Heresy and Humanism.” In Middle English. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2007. 421-37. [Cole connects Wycliffism with the early humanists, using the term “ecclesiastical humanism” to “account for some of the institutional settings within which humanist activity flourished after new classical texts from the continent began to circulate in England in the first quarter of the fifteenth century” (426). Cole connects ecclesiastical interest in early humanism to changes in theological discourse during the fifteenth century, and hence to the bishops’ perception of Wycliffism.]

—.”Staging Advice in Oxford, New College, MS 288: On Thomas Chaundler and Thomas Bekynton.” Gillespie and Ghosh 245-263. [The essay describes a shift in the fifteenth century from the pastoral to the secular in the advice offered to bishops, creating “what might be called in some instances a ‘mirror for bishops’ tradition.” Cole addresses Wycliffite advice literature, claiming that it combines pastoral and secular advice traditions. More broadly, however, he argues that study of ecclesiastical humanism raises questions about the relevance of “the Wycliffite paradigm” in the latter half of the fifteenth century.]

Coleman, Janet. English Literature in History, 1350-1400: Medieval Readers and Writers. London: Hutchinson, 1981.

—. Piers Plowman and the Moderni. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Litteratura, 1981.

—. “Property and Poverty.” The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought. Ed. J.H. Burns. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988. 607-648.

Coley, David. “Baptism as Eucharist: Orthodoxy, Wycliffism, and the Sacramental Utterance in Saint Erkenwald.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 107.3 (July 2008): 327-347. [“The article focuses on the poem “Saint Erkenwald” . . . It explores the sacrament of baptism and its association to orthodoxy, Wycliffism and sacramental utterance. Additionally, it presents the discovery of a sarcophagus containing an inexplicably preserved corpse. It also demonstrates its allegiance to orthodox eucharistic theology and the terms of its account of the judge’s conversion. Moreover, it suggests how its orthodoxy is constructed through its baptismal aspects.”]

Colledge, E. “The Recluse: A Lollard Interpolated Version of the Ancren Riwle.” Review of English Studies 15 (1939): 1-15, 129-45.

Collette, Carolyn. Species, Phantasms, and Images: Vision and Medieval Psychology in The Canterbury Tales. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 2001. [Collette places a discussion of several of the Tales within “the complex nexus of ideas about human cognition and psychology comprising late medieval theories of how sight, imagination, and fantasye function within the human mind” (viii). Within this, she makes use of Lollard critiques of images (when discussing Virginia and the Physician’s Tale), and Lollard discourse and “understondynge” (in the Parson’s Tale).]

Colletti, Theresa. Mary Magdalene and the Drama of Saints: Theater, Gender, and Religion in Late Medieval England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 200. [Within her study, Colletti makes mention of the fact that “like many medieval reform movements, Lollardy was hospitable to women” (141), and that they were permitted to preach. She discusses Walter Brut’s use of Mary Magdalene “in his defense of women’s ability–and right–to preach as well as perform other priestly sacraments” (142), and argues that “Late medieval religious politics–of gender, preaching, and the vernacular–unquestionably shadow the public teaching of the Digby play’s Mary Magdalene” (147).]

Collinson, P. “The English Conventicle.” Sheils and Wood, Voluntary Religion 223-59.

Condict, Ellen Marie. “Truth, Craft, and the Real in Chaucer’s House Of Fame.” Ph.D. Diss., Baylor University, 2010. [From the abstract: “This dissertation studies the House of Fame in light of its intellectual context and its social and literary milieu. . . . At the foundation of this unwieldy poem lies distinct philosophical assumptions that hearken back to orthodox, realist sources and positions, expressed most relevantly to Chaucer’s interests and time period in Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy and Wyclif’s defense of realism, in On Universals in particular. Standing on the firm ground of Augustinian realism, Wyclif disputes the modern logicians, who refute the existence of universals and thus chip away at the foundations of the Christian faith. In Boethius’s and Wyclif’s defense of universals, the themes and concerns of their work align closely with those of Chaucer, in particular in his emphasis on the connection that exists between word and deed, between language and reality. Chaucer is concerned with language and its ability to convey meaning, both as a poet and as a thinker grappling with the philosophical and intellectual currents of his day.”]

Conetti, M. L’ecclesiologia delle ultime opere di John Wyclif. Milan, 1994.

—. “The Radical Dissenter John Wyclif’s Challenge to the Constantin Church.” Studi Medievali 38.1 (June, 1997): 139-201.

Constable, Giles. “Opposition to Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages.” Studia Gratiana 19 (1976): 123-146.

Conti, Alessandro D. “Essenza ed essere nel pensiero della tarda scolastica (Burley, Wyclif, Paolo Veneto).” Medioevo 15 (1989): 235-67.

—. “Logica intensionale et metafisica dell’essenza in John Wyclif.” Bullettino dell’Instituto Storico Italiano per il Medio Evo e Archivio Muratoriano 1993 (99): 159-219.

—. “Analogy and Formal Distinction: the Logical Basis of Wyclif’s Metaphysics.” Medieval Philosophy and Theology 6.2 (1997): 133-65.

—. “Johannes Sharpe’s Ontology and Semantics: Oxford Realism Revisited.” Vivarium 43.1 (2005): 156-186. According to the abstract, “The German Johannes Sharpe is the most important and original author of the so called “Oxford Realists”: his semantic and metaphysical theories are the end product of the two main medieval philosophical traditions, realism and nominalism, for he contributed to the new form of realism inaugurated by Wyclif, but was receptive to many nominalist criticisms. Starting from the main thesis of Wyclif’s metaphysics, that the universal and individual are really identical but formally distinct, Oxford Realists introduced a new type of predication, based on a partial identity between the entities for which the subject and predicate stood, called predication by essence, and then redefined the traditional post-Aristotelian categories of essential and accidental predication in terms of this partial identity. Sharpe substantially shares the metaphysical view and principles of the other Oxford Realists, but he elaborates a completely different semantics, since he accepts the nominalist principle of the autonomy of thought in relation to the world, and Ockham’s explanation for the universality of concepts. Unfortunately, this semantic approach partially undermines his defence of realism, since it deprives Sharpe of any compelling semantic and epistemological reasons to posit universalia in re. Therefore, Sharpe’s main ontological theses certainly are sensible and reasonable, but, paradoxically, within his philosophical system they cannot in any way be considered as absolutely consistent.”

—. “Wyclif’s Logic and Metaphysics.” Levy 67-125.

—. “Annihilatio e divina onnipotenza nel Tractatus de universalibus di John Wyclif.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 71-85.

—. “Categories and Universals in the Later Middle Ages.” In Lloyd A. Newton, ed. Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle’s Categories. Leiden: Brill, 2008. 369- 409.

—. “Alcune note su idee divine, creazione ed impossibilità della riduzione al nulla in John Wyclif.” In Discussioni sul nulla tra Medioevo ed Età Moderna. Ed. Massimiliano Lenzi and Alfonso Maierù. Firenze: Olschik, 2009. 105-117.

Cook, William R. “John Wyclif and Hussite Theology, 1415-1436.” Church History 42 (1973): 335-49.

Cooke, James H. Trevisa’s Translation of the Bible.” Notes and Queries 5th ser. 10 (1878): 261-62. [>1 mb]

Cooper, Lisa. “‘Markys . . . off the Workman’: Heresy, Hagiography, and the Heavens in The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man. Lydgate Matters: Poetry and Material Culture in the Fifteenth Century. Ed. Lisa Cooper and Andrea Denny-Brown. New York: Palgrave, 2008. 89-111. [Cooper reads the Pilgrimage as an anti-Lollard critique by showing how artisans and Lollards were seen as reflections of each other.]

Copeland, Rita. “Vernacular Translation and Instruction in Grammar in Fifteenth-Century England.” Papers in the History of Linguistics. Ed. H. Aarsleff et al. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1987. 143-54.

—. “Rhetoric and Vernacular Translation in the Middle Ages.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 9 (1987): 41-75.

—. Rhetoric, Hermeneutics, and Translation in the Middle Ages: Academic Traditions and Vernacular Texts. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 11. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991.

—. “Why Women Can’t Read: Medieval Hermeneutics, Statutory Law, and the Lollard Heresy.” Representing Women: Law, Literature, and Feminism. Ed. Susan Heinzelman and Zipporah Wiseman. Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Press, 1994. 253-86

—. “William Thorpe and His Lollard Community: Intellectual Labor and the Representation of Dissent.” Hanawalt and Wallace 199-221.

—. “Rhetoric and the Politics of the Literal Sense in Medieval Literary Theory: Aquinas, Wyclif, and the Lollards.” Interpretation: Medieval and Modern. Ed. A. Torti and P. Boitani, eds. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1992. 1-23. Rpt. in Rhetoric and Hermeneutics in Our Time: A Reader. Ed. W. Josh and M.J. Hyde. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1997. 335-57.

—. “Childhood, Pedagogy, and the Literal Sense: From Late Antiquity to the Lollard Heretical Classroom.” Scase, Copeland, and Lawton 125-156.

—. “Toward a Social Genealogy of Translation Theory: Classical Property Law and Lollard Property Reform.” Beer 173-183.

—. Pedagogy, Intellectuals, and Dissent in the Later Middle Ages: Lollardy and Ideas of Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001. [This book is about the place of pedagogy and the role of intellectuals in medieval dissent. Drawing on pedagogical theorists such as Freire and Giroux as well as a wealth of later medieval texts, Copeland shows how teachers radically transformed inherited ideas about classrooms and pedagogy as they brought their teaching to adult learners. The pedagogical imperatives of Lollard dissent were also embodied in the work of certain public figures, intellectuals whose dissident careers transformed the social category of the medieval intellectual.]

—. “Sophistic, Spectrality, Iconoclasm.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 112-130. [Copeland explores accusations of “sophistry” leveled by Wyclif and Lollards against their opponents, describing the academic erudition behind the accusation while also noting how it positions them as academic outsiders.]

—. “Wycliffite Ciceronianism? The General Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible and Augustine’s De Doctrina Christiana.” Rhetoric and Renewal in the West 1100-1540: Essays in Honour of John O. Ward. Ed. Constant Mews, Cary Nederman, and Rodney M. Thomson. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003. 185-200.

—. “Lollard Writings.” The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Literature 1100-1500. Ed. Larry Scanlon. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. 111-123.

—. “Lollard Instruction.” In Medieval Christianity in Practice. Ed. Miri Rubin. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2009. 27-34. [Uses the Prologue to the Glossed Gospel prologue to the short exposition on Matthew to illustrate the emphasis lollards placed on educating the laity to read and interpret scripture.]

Corbellini, Sabrina. “Beyond Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy: A New Approach to Late Medieval Religious Reading.” Corbellini 33-54.

Corsani, Bruno. “Il Discorso della montagna nella Biblia wycliffita e nel N.T. di W. Tyndale.” John Wyclif 103-142.

Cottret, Bernard. “Traducteurs et Divulgateurs Clandestins de la Reforme dans l’Angleterre Henrecienne.” Revue d’Histoire Moderne et Contemporaire 28 (July-Sept. 1981): 464-80.

Courtenay, William J. Adam Wodeham. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1978.

—. “Augustinianism at Oxford in the Fourteenth Century.” Augustiniana 30 (1980): 58-70.

—. “The Effect of the Black Death on English Higher Education.” Speculum 55.4 (1980): 696-714.

—. “Force of Words and Figures of Speech: The Crisis over Virtus Sermonis in the Fourteenth Century.” Franciscan Studies 44 (1984): 107-28.

—. “The Bible in the Fourteenth Century: Some Observations.” Church History 54.2 (June 1985): 176-87.

—. “The Reception of Ockham’s Thought in Fourteenth Century England.” Hudson and Wilks 89-107.

—. Schools and Scholars in Fourteenth Century England. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1987.

—. “Antiqui and Moderni in Late Medieval Thought.” Journal of the History of Ideas 48.1 (1987): 3-10.

—. “Inquiry and Inquisition: Academic Freedom in Medieval Universities.” Church History 58 (1989): 168-181.

—. “Theology and Theologians From Ockham to Wyclif.” Catto and Evans 1-34.

Cowell, Herbert. The Character and Place of Wickliffe as a Reformer. The Stanhope Prize essay, 1857. [For a contemporary review of this study, with 10 other publications, see “Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics,” British Quarterly Review 28 (1858), included below.]

Coxe, Margaret. The Life of John Wycliffe, D.D.. Columbus: Isaac Whiting, 1840. [ Coxe (3.7 mb)]

Crane, Susan. “The Writing Lesson of 1381.” Hanawalt 201-221.

Crassons, Kate. “‘The workman is worth his mede’: Poverty, Labor, and Charity in the Sermon of William Taylor.” The Middle Ages at Work: Practicing Labor in Late Medieval England. Ed Kellie Robertson and Michael Uebel. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 67-90. [Crassons’ essay “argues that the Wycliffite sermon of William Taylor presents seemingly contradictory arguments about the role of poverty work, and charity within Christian society. Taylor ultimately rejects poverty as a widespread Christian virtue and instead favors labor as the primary force that sanctifies the larger community in protecting it from material deprivation.”]

—. The Claims Of Poverty: Literature, Culture, and Ideology in Late Medieval England. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 2010. [Crassons focuses on the period after the plague, when theological and social conceptions shifted to consider poverty as “a symptom of idleness and other sins” rather than a sign of virtue, as had been the case in the thirteenth-century wake of the fraternal orders (5). Among chapters on the C-Text of Piers Plowman, Margery Kempe, and the York Corpus Christi plays, Crassons’ Chapter 2 considers the lollard polemic Pierce the Plowman’s Crede, and her Chapter 3 focuses on “Poverty and Wycliffite Reform,” considering Fitzralph’s Defensio Curatorum, the Sermon of William Taylor, the sermon Omnis plantacio, and the tract De blasphemia contra fratres.]

Craun, Edwin. “Discarding Traditional Pastoral Ethics: Wycliffism and Slander.” Bose and Hornbeck 227-242. [Craun demonstrates how Lollards adapted a pastoral discourse on fraternal correction to validate their criticisms of the contemporary church, especially those directed at friars. Among other texts, the essay features analysis of Pierce the Plowman’s Crede, Hou Sathanas & his Prestis & his Feined Religious, and Of Pseudo-Friars.]

Cré, Marleen. “Authority and the Compiler in Westminster Cathedral Treasury MS 4: Writing a Text in Someone Else’s Words.” Authority and Community in the Middle Ages. Ed. D. Mowbray, R. Purdie, and I.P. Wei. Phoenix Mill: Sutton, 1999. 153-176.

Creighton, M. “Lechler’s Wiclif.” The Theological Review 10 (1873): 417-38. [A review article about Lechler’s Johann von Wiclif unde die Vorgeschichte dere Reformation. (>1 mb)]

Crompton, James J. “Fasciculi Zizaniorum.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 12 (1961): 35-45, 155-65.

—. “John Wyclif: A Study in Mythology.” Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society 42 (1966-67): 6-34.

—. “Leicestershire Lollards.” Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society 44 (1968-9): 11-44.

Cronin, Harry S. “John Wycliffe, the Reformer, and Canterbury Hall.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 3rd. ser., vol. 8 (1914): 55-76.

—. “Wycliffe’s Canonry at Lincoln.” English Historical Review 35 (1920): 564-9. [1 mb]

Cross, Claire. “Popular Piety and the Records of the Unestablished Churches 1460-1660.” Baker, Materials 269-92.

—. “‘Great Reasoners in Scripture’: The Activities of Women Lollards 1380-1530.” Medieval Women. Ed. Derek Baker. Studies in Church History, Subsidia 1. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978. 359-80.

—. Church and People: England 1450-1660. 2nd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1999.

—. “A.G. Dickens as a Yorkshire Historian.” Historical Research 77.195 (Feb. 2004): 111-27. [This article is one of an entire volume of Historical Research devoted to the life and work of A.G. Dickens. This article in particular attends to his affection for Yorkshire and the work leading up to his 1959 Lollards and Protestants in the Diocese of York, 1509-58.]

Cutts, Cecilia. “The Croxton Play: an Anti-Lollard Piece.” Modern Language Quarterly 5 (1944): 45-60.

Dahmus, Joseph H. “Further Evidence for the Spelling ‘Wyclyf.'” Speculum 16 (1941): 224-25.

—. “Did Wyclyf Recant?” Church Historical Review 29 (1943): 155-68.

—. The Prosecution of John Wyclyf. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1952.

—. “Wyclyf Was a Negligent Pluralist.” Speculum 28 (1953): 378-81.

—. “Richard II and the Church.” Church Historical Review 39 (1954): 408-33.

—. “John Wyclif and the English Government.” Speculum 35 (1960): 51-68.

—. William Courtenay: Archbishop of Canterbury 1381-1396. University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 1966.

Dakin, Arthur. “Die Beziehungen John Wiclifs und der Lollarden zu den Bettelmönchen.” [“The relationship of John Wyclif and the Lollards with the Mendicant Friars.”] Dissertation. Ruprecht-Karls-Universität zu Heidelberg, 1911. London: Kingsgate, 1911. [In English. (4.6 mb)]

Dallman, W. “John Wiclif.” Theological Quarterly 11 (1907): 41-49, 97-107, 172-84; 12 (1908): 43-48. [All parts have been included in one file. (>1 mb)]

Daly, Lowrie J. The Political Theory of John Wyclif. Chicago: Loyola Univ. Press, 1962.

D’Alton, Craig. “William Warham and English Heresy Policy after the Fall of Wolsey.” Historical Research 77.197 (Aug. 2004): 337-57. [According to the abstract, D’Alton’s article “charts the brief re-emergence of William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, as the main driving force, arguing that the lord chancellor, Sir Thomas More, did not assert control over heresy policy until late 1531. Warham’s policy combined anti-heresy activity with attempts at clerical reform. Moreover, he sought to publicize and publicly refute the errors of the heretics, eschewing show trials and burnings. This policy ultimately failed, and was replaced with more direct action which saw several key heretics [including Thomas Bilney] handed over for burning.”]

—. “Heresy Hunting and Clerical Reform: William Warham, John Colet, and the Lollards of Kent, 1511–12.” Heresy in Transition: Transforming Ideas of Heresy in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Ed. Ian Hunter, John C. Laursen, and Cary Nederman. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005. 103-14.

—. “Walter Burley and John Wyclif on Some Aspects of Kingship.” Mélanges Eugène Tisserant. Vol. 4. Vatican: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1964. 163-84.

—. “Wyclif’s Political Theory: A Century of Study.” Medievalia et Humanistica n.s. 4 (1973): 177-187.

D’Avray, David L. “Printing, Mass Communication, and Religious Reformation: The Middle Ages and After.” The History of the Book in the West, 1: 400 AD-1455. Ed. Jane Roberts and Pamela Robinson. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010. 301-321.

David, Daniell. William Tyndale: A Biography. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1994.

Davidson, Clifford. “Wyclif and the Middle English Sermon.” Universitas 3 (1966): 92-99.

Davies, Richard G. “Thomas Arundel as Archbishop of Canterbury, 1396-1414.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 14 (1973): 9-21.

—. “Lollardy and Locality.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society Sixth Series, vol. 1 (1991): 191-211.

—. “Richard II and the Church.” Richard II: The Art of Kingship. Ed. Anthony Goodman and James L. Gillespie. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998. 83-106.

Davis, D. G. “The Bible of John Wyclif: Production and Circulation.” Bibliotheca Sacra 128 (1971): 16-26.

Davis, E. Jeffries. “Authorities for the Case of Richard Hunne.” English Historical Review 30 (1915): 477-88. [>1 mb]

Davis, John F. “Lollards, Reformers, and St. Thomas of Canterbury.” University of Birmingham Historical Journal 9 (1963-4): 1-15.

—. “Lollard Survival and the Textile Industry in the Southeast of England.” Studies in Church History 3. Ed. G.J. Cuming. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1966. 191-201.

—. “John Wyclif’s Reformation Reputation.” Churchman 83 (1969): 97-102.

—. “The Trials of Thomas Bylney and the English Reformation.” Historical Journal 24 (1981): 775-90.

—. “Lollardy and the Reformation in England.” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 73 (1982): 227-32.

—. “Joan of Kent, Lollardy, and the English Reformation.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 33 (1982): 225-33.

—. Heresy and Reformation in the South-East of England, 1520-1559. London: Royal Historical Society, 1983.

Davis, Nicholas. “Another View of The Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge.” Medieval English Theatre 4 (1982): 48-55.

—. “The Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge: On Milieu and Authorship.” Medieval English Theatre 12 (1990): 124-51.

Davis, Virginia. William Wykeham: A Life. London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007. [“Wykeham’s administrative talents ensured that he became bishop of Winchester, holder of one of the richest sees in Christendom and Chancellor of England under Edward III and Richard II. ‘Everything was done by him and nothing was done without him’ wrote the contemporary chronicler, Jean Froissart. . . . Davis highlights Wykeham’s extraordinarily commitment to good governance and his extensive involvement in English politics between c. 1360 – 1402.”]

Dawson, James D. “Richard Fitzralph and the Fourteenth Century Poverty Controversies.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 34.3 (July, 1983): 315-344.

Deane, David S. John Wicleffe, the Morning Star of the Reformation. London, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death.]

Deane, Jennifer Kolpacoff. A History of Medieval Heresy and Inquisition. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011. [The final two chapters of this book concern Wycliffites in England and Hussites in Bohemia.]

Deanesly, Margaret. The Lollard Bible and other Medieval Biblical Versions. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1920. Rpt. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2002. [A seminal study, though some of her claims, notably the authorship of tracts in her Appendices, have been disproven; note especially Hudson’s essay “The Debate on Bible Translation, Oxford 1401,” below. Her appendices alone are included on the Bibliography of Primary Sources. (22.8 mb)]

—. “Vernacular Books in England in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries.” Modern Language Review 15.4 (Oct. 1920): 349-58. [>1 mb]

—. “Arguments Against the Use of Vernacular Bibles, Put Forward in the Controversy over their Lawfulness.” Church Quarterly Review 91 (1921): 59-77. [1.6 mb]

—. “The Significance of the Lollard Bible: The Ethel M. Wood Lecture Delivered before the University of London on 13 March, 1951.” Pamphlet. London: Athlone, 1951.

de Boor, Frederick. Wyclif’s Simoniebegriff: Die theologischen und kirchenpolitischen Grundlagen der Kirchenkritik John Wyclifs. Halle: Niemeyer, 1970.

de Lapparent, Pierre. “Un Précurseur de la Réforme Anglaise: L’Anonyme d’York.” Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge 15 (1946): 149-168.

De La Torre, Bartholomew R., O.P. Thomas Buckingham and the Contingency of Futures. Publications in Medieval Studies. The Medieval Institute, vol. 25. South Bend: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1987.

Denery, Dallas G. “From Sacred Mystery to Divine Deception: Robert Holkot, John Wyclif and the Transformation of Fourteenth-Century Eucharistic Discourse.” Journal of Religious History 29.2 (2005): 129-44. [This paper examines Wyclif’s critique of medieval Eucharistic theology in light of fourteenth-century debates about the possibility of and consequences of divine deception. Throughout On the Eucharist, Wyclif rejects the doctrine of transubstantiation because it seems to turn God into a liar. If God could separate accidents from their proper substances, make Christ’s body appear like mere bread, Wyclif doubts we could ever be sure of anything. All natural knowledge, perhaps even all religious knowledge, would be lost. Focusing primarily on the writings of the English Dominican Robert Holkot, this paper explores a central transformation in fourteenth-century Eucharistic discourse. While earlier theologians, like Aquinas and Bonaventure, had interpreted the sensory paradoxes associated with Eucharist as sacred mysteries pointing towards hidden truths, later writers, beginning with Holkot, tended to treat them as clear examples of divine deception. Wyclif’s deepest reasons for rejecting orthodox Eucharist theology really only begin to make sense against this broader background of theological debate.]

Despres, Denise. Ghostly Sights: Visual Meditation in Late-Medieval Literature. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1989.

de Vooght, Paul. “Les indulgences dan la theologie de Jean Wyclif et de Jean Huss.” Recherches de theologie religieuse 41 (1953): 481-518.

—. Les Sources de la Doctrine Chretienne. Bruges: Desclee De Brouwer, 1954.

—. “La doctrine et les sources du sermon ‘Dixit Martha ad Jesum’ de Jean Huss.” Revue des Sciences Religieuses 31 (1957): 20-33.

—. Hussiana. Louvain: Publications Universitaires de Louvain, 1960.

—. “L’heresie de Taborites sur l’Eucharistie (1418-21).” Irenikon 35 (1962): 340-50.

—. “Wyclif et la ‘scriptura sola.'” Ephemerides Theologicas Lovanienses. 39 (1963): 50-86.

—. L’hérésie de Jean Huss. 2nd rev. ed. 2 vols. Louvain: Publications Universitaires de Louvain, 1975.

Dickens, A.G. “Heresy and the Origins of English Protestantism.” Britain and the Netherlands, vol. 2. Ed. J.S. Bromley and R.H. Kossmann. Groningen: J.B. Wolters, 1964. 47-66.

—. The English Reformation. London: Batsford, 1964.

—. Lollards and Protestants in the Diocese of York, 1509-1558. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1959.

—. “The Shape of Anti-Clericalism and the English Reformation.” Politics and Society in Reformation Europe: Essays for Sir Geoffrey Elton. Ed. E.I. Kouri and T. Scott. New York: St. Martin’s, 1987. 378-410.

DiDomizio, Daniel. “Jan Hus’s De Ecclesia, Precursor of Vatican II?” Theological Studies 60 (1999): 247-260. [“The often neglected Reformation led by Jan Hus in 15th-century Bohemia has significant ecumenical implications. Hus wrote his De Ecclesia in 1413 in order to articulate his criticism of the Christian community of his day and the proclaim his evangelical vision of the Church. The moral revolution of the Church that Hus called for in his day finds a clear echo in Vatican II’s Lumen gentium” (247; quoted from the abstract).]

Diemer, Stefan. John Wycliffe und seine Rolle bei der Entstehung der modernen englischen Rechtschreibung und des Wortschatzes. Frankfurt: Lang, 1998.

Dillon, Janette. Language and Stage in Medieval and Renaissance England. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998.

Dinshaw, Carolyn. Getting Medieval: Sexualities and Communities, Pre- and Post-Modern. Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1999.

—. “Queer Relations.” Essays in Medieval Studies: Proceedings of the Illinois Medieval Association 16 (1999): 79-99.

Dipple, Geoffrey L. “Uthred and the Friars: Apostolic Poverty and Clerical Dominion between Fitzralph and Wyclif.” Traditio 49 (1994): 235-58.

Dolnikowski, Edith. “Fitzralph and Wyclif on the Mendicants.” Michigan Academician 19:1 (1987): 87-100.

—. Thomas Bradwardine: A View of Time and a Vision of Eternity in Fourteenth-Century Thought. Studies in the History of Christian Thought, vol. 65. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995.

—. “The Encouragement of Lay Preaching as an Ecclesiastical Critique in Wyclif’s Latin Sermons.” Models of Holiness in Medieval Sermons. Ed. Beverly M. Kinzie et al. Louvain–la-Neuve: Fédération Internationale des Institutes d’Etudes Médiévales, 1996. 193-209.

—. “Preaching at Oxford: Academic and Pastoral Themes in Wyclif’s Latin Sermon Cycle.” Medieval Sermons and Society: Cloister, City, University. Ed. J. Hamesse et al. Louvain–la-Neuve: Fédération Internationale des Institutes d’Etudes Médiévales, 1998. 371-86.

—. “The Early Fourteenth-Century Context for the Doctrine of Divine Foreknowledge in Wyclif’s Latin Sermons.” Medieval Monks and their World, Ideas and Realities: Studies in Honor of Richard E. Sullivan. Ed. David Blanks et al. Leiden: Brill, 2006. 183-94.

Dotterweich, Martin Holt. “A Book for Lollands and Protestants: Murdoch Nisbet’s New Testament.” Literature and the Scottish Reformation. Ed. Crawford Gribben and David G. Mullan. Surrey, England; Ashgate; 2009. 233-245. [Nisbet’s glosses show how a lay reader in the early to mid-sixteenth century negotiated between different versions of the New Testament.]

Dove, Mary. The First English Bible: The Text and Context of the Wycliffite Versions. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 66. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.”

—. “Love ad litteram: The Lollard Translations of the Song of Songs.” Reformation 9 (2004): 1-23.

—.Wyclif and the English Bible.” Levy 365-406.

—. “The Lollards’ Threefold Biblical Agenda.” Bose and Hornbeck 211-226. [Based on comments in the Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible, Dove describes the Lollards’ biblical agenda as threefold: “to enable simple people to have the Bible (or access to it), to understand it, and to live in accordance with it.” This essay primarily discusses the issue of understanding scripture, comparing statements on literal and figurative interpretation in the Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible with other Middle English treatises on biblical translation, including The Holi Prophete Dauid.]

Doyle, A.I. “Books Connected with the Vere Family and Barking Abbey.” Essex Archaeological Society’s Transactions n.s. 25 (1958): 222-43.

—. “University College, Oxford, MS 97 and its Relationship to the Simeon Manuscript (British Library Add. 22283).” Benskin and Samuels 265-82.

—. “English Books In and Out of Court from Edward III to Henry VII.” English Court and Culture in the Later Middle Ages. Ed. V.J. Scattergood and J.W. Sherbourne. London, Duckworth, 1983. 163-81.

—. “The European Circulation of Three Latin Spiritual Texts.” Latin and Vernacular: Studies in Late-Medieval Texts and Manuscripts. Ed. A.J. Minnis. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1989. 129-146.

—. “The Study of Nicholas Love’s Mirror, Retrospect and Prospect.” Nicholas Love at Waseda. Ed. Shoichi Oguro, Richard Beadle, and Michael Sargent. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1997. 163-74.

Doyle, Eric, O.F.M. “A Manuscript of William Woodford’s De Dominio Civili Clericorum.” Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 62 (1969): 377-81.

—. “William Woodford, O.F.M. and John Wyclif’s De religione.” Speculum 52.2 (April 1977): 329-36.

Doyle, Robert. “The Death of Christ and the Doctrine of Grace in John Wycliffe.” Churchman 99.4 (1985): 317-35.

Drees, Clayton J. Authority and Dissent in the Medieval Church: The Prosecution of Heresy and Religious Non-Conformity in the Diocese of Winchester, 1380-1547. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon, 1997.

Duffy, Eamon. The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England 1400-1580. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1992.

—. “Religious Belief.” A Social History of England, 1200-1500. Ed. Rosemary Horrox and Mark Ormrod. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006. 293-339.

Dunnan, D.S. “A Note on John Gough’s The Dore of Holy Scripture.” Notes and Queries 36 (234).3 (Sept, 1989): 309-310.

—. “A Note on the Three Churches in the Lantern of Lyght.” Notes and Queries 38:1 (1991): 20-22.

Dyson, A.H., and S.H. Skillington. Lutterworth Church and its Associations, With a Chapter on John Wycliffe. Leicester, 1916.

Dyson, Thomas. “Wyclif Reviewed.” Church Quarterly Review 168 (1967): 423-433.

Dziewicki, M.H. “An Essay on John Wyclif’s Philosophical System.” Johannis Wyclif Miscellanea Philosophica. London, 1902. Vol. 1, v-xxvii. [Included on the Bibliography of Primary Sources.]

Easson, D.E. “The Lollards of Kyle.” Juridical Review 48 (1936): 123-28.

Eckermann, Willigis. “Augustinus Favaroni von Rom und Johannes Wyclif: Der Ansatz ihrer Lehre uber die Kirche.” Scientia Augustiniana: Studien uber Augustinus, den Augustinismus und den Augustinerorden. Ed. Cornelius Mayer, Willigis Eckermann, and Coelestin Patock. Wurzburg: Augustinus, 1975. 323-48.

Edden, Valerie. “‘And my boonus had dried vp as critouns’: The History of the Translation of Psalm 101.4.” Notes and Queries 28 (226).5 (1981): 389-92.

Eldredge, L. “The Concept of God’s Absolute Power at Oxford in the Later Fourteenth Century.” By Things Seen: Reference and Recognition in Medieval Thought. Ed. D.L. Jeffrey. Ottawa: Univ. of Ottawa Press, 1979. 211-26.

Ellis, Roger. “Text and Controversy: In Defence of St. Birgitta of Sweden.” Barr and Hutchinson 303-321. [Birgitta was canonized in 1391 when the Lollard movement was heating up, but the paper mostly concerns the defenses of Birgitta by Mathias of Linköping and Alfonso of Jaén.]

Emblom, Margaret. “‘I Herd an Harping on a Hille’: Its Text and Context.” Proceedings of the Illinois Medieval Association 1 (1984): 49-61.

Emden, A.B. An Oxford Hall in Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1927.

Emerson, Everett H. “Reginald Pecock: Christian Rationalist.” Speculum 31 (1956): 235-42.

Erickson, Carolly. “The Fourteenth-Century Fransciscans and their Critics, Part 1: The Order’s Growth and Character.” Franciscan Studies 8 (1975): 107-35.

—. “The Fourteenth Century Franciscans and their Critics, Continued.” Franciscan Studies 14 (1976): 108-47.

Erler, Mary. Women, Reading, and Piety in Late Medieval England. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002. [This study is especially interesting for the detailed descriptions it gives of women and the reading communities they belonged to. Since many of the women she describes are orthodox, this book also illustrates the range of belief and practice along the continuum from orthodox to heterodox. Lollardy appears in the circle of readers around Margery de Nerford. One of her books included a copy of a glossed Psalter, apparently Rolle’s English commentary, and her relations included Sir John de Cobham, whose granddaughter Joan married John Oldcastle (ch. 2). Chapter 5 describes the book reading and ownership circles around the anchoress Katherine Mann and Abbess Elizabeth Throckmorton in the 1520s, both of whom owned the writings of Tyndale, the former receiving her copy of the Obedience of a Christian Man from Thomas Bilney.]

Evans, Gillian R. “Wycliffe the Academic.” Churchman 98.4 (1984): 307-18.

—. The Language and Logic of the Bible: The Road to the Reformation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985.

—. “Thomas of Chobham on Preaching and Exegesis.” Recherches de Theologie Ancienne et Medievale 52 (1985): 159-70.

—. “Wyclif’s Logic and Wyclif’s Exegesis: the Context.” Walsh and Wood 287-300.

—. “Wyclif on Literal and Metaphorical.” Hudson and Wilks 259-66.

—. “Wyclif on Ecclesiology: Issues of Perspective.” Anvil 11.1 (1994): 45-55.

—. Fifty Key Medieval Thinkers. New York: Routledge, 2002. [Evans includes a chapter on Wyclif, giving a brief outline of his thought, his major works, and some suggestions for further reading.]

—. A Brief History of Heresy. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002. [This includes a chapter on Wyclif and Lollardy.]

—. “John Wyclif: The Biography of a Legend.” Auto/Biography 14.1 (2006): 1-20.

—. John Wyclif: Myth and Reality. Downer’s Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2006. [The first full-length academic biography of Wyclif since Workman in 1926.]

Evans, Nesta. “William Thorpe: An Early Lollard.” History Today 18 (1968): 495-503.

—. “Bishop Reginald Pecock and the Lollards.” Studies in Sussex Church History. Ed. M.J. Kitch. London: Leopard’s Head, 1981. 57-75.

—. “The Impossibility of Tracing Dissent Through Time in Thirty-six Parishes on the Essex, Cambridgeshire, and Suffolk Borders.” Spufford 397-400.

—. “The Parishes Investigated for Details of the Genealogies of the Nineteen Families Searched for in the Chilterns.” Spufford 401-30.

Everett, Dorothy. “The Middle English Prose Psalter of Richard Rolle of Hampole.” Modern Language Review 17.3 and 17.4 (Oct. 1922): 217-227, 337-350; 18.4 (Oct. 1923): 381-393.

Farr, William. John Wyclif as Legal Reformer. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1974.

Fairfield, Leslie P. “John Bale and the Development of Protestant Hagiography in England.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 24.2 (April, 1973): 145-60.

—. John Bale, Mythmaker for the English Reformation. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Univ. Press, 1976.

Fehrman, Craig. “Did Chaucer read the Wycliffite Bible?” Chaucer Review 42.2 (2007): 1-28. [According to Fehrman, Chaucer was interested in the Bible’s style and social milieu, and he, “even with his originality as a translator, evinces the influence of the Wycliffite Bible.” Fehrman compares transalations from “the Canterbury Tales, the Wycliffite Bible, and other contemporary works, especially Chaucer’s Boece, within the context of the Wycliffite theory of ‘opin’ translation (and, more importantly, within the contenxt of Chaucer’s understanding of this theory).”]

Fewer, Colin. “The ‘Fygure’ of the Market: The N-Town Cycle and East Anglian Lay Piety.” Philological Quarterly 77 (1998): 117-47.

Figgis, J. N. “John Wyclif.” Typical English Churchmen, Series 2. The Church Historical Society, 78. London: Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, 1909.

Fines, John. “The Post-Mortem Condemnation for Heresy of Richard Hunne.” English Historical Review 78 (1963): 528-31.

—. “Heresy Trials in the Diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, 1511-12.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 14 (1963): 160-74.

—. “An Unnoticed Tract of the Tyndale-More Dispute?” Historical Research: The Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 42 (1969): 220-30.

Finucane, Ronald. Miracles and Pilgrims: Popular Belief in Medieval England. London: Dent, 1977.

Fischer, H. “Ueber die Sprache J. Wiclif’s: Laut- und Flexionslehre.” Dissertatio Inauguralis . . . in Academia Fridericiana Halensi. Halis Saxonum [Halle], 1880. [1.1 mb]

Fischler, David S. “The Political Philosophy of John Wyclif.” Church Divinity 1981. Ed. John H. Morgan. Notre Dame: Church Divinity Monograph Series, 1981. 56-65.

Fisher, John H. “Wyclif, Langland, Gower, and the Pearl-Poet on the Subject of Aristocracy.” Studies in Medieval Literature in Honor of Professor Albert Croll Baugh. Ed. MacEdward Leach. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1961. 139-157.

Fitzhenry, William. “The N-Town Plays and the Politics of Metatheater.” Studies in Philology 100 (2003): 22-43. [This essay locates the N-Town plays within the debates about the role of the vernacular in late medieval England. Fitzhenry argues that the plays negotiate a tension between two models of drama (the monologic and the dialogic) and that the characters of the play offer a kind of self-reflexivity about drama. After contextualizing the plays in terms of Arundel’s Constitutions, Fitzhenry turns to a reading of the plays: the scribe’s use of compilatio, the dramatic narrators, and the plays’ investigation of political rule and its challenges (anarchic interpretation).]

—. “Vernacularity and Theater: Gender and Religious Identity in East Anglian Drama.” Ph.D. Diss., Duke University, 1997. [From the abstract: “This dissertation explores representation of community and religious identity in four cultural texts in late medieval England: the N-Town plays, the Digby Mary Magdalene, Arundel’s Constitutions, and Nicholas Love’s Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ. I am particular interested in tracing the relations between vernacular drama and the political uses of English in the contexts of the emerging conflicts between Wycliffism and the Church. While Arundel’s Constitutions (1409) intensified the restrictions on English theological writings, I examine the means by which drama was able to extend and transmit theological ideas in the vernacular during this era of censorship.”

Fleming, John V. “Chaucer and Erasmus on the Pilgrimage to Canterbury.” The Popular Literature of Medieval England. Ed. Thomas J. Heffernan. Tennessee Studies in Literature 28. Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1985. 148-166.

Fletcher, Alan J. “John Mirk and the Lollards.” Medium Aevum 56.1 (1987): 217-224.

—. “The Preaching of the Pardoner.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 11 (1989): 15-35. Rpt. in Fletcher 249-65.

—. “The Topical Hypocrisy of Chaucer’s Pardoner.” Chaucer Review 25:2 (1990): 110-26. Rpt. in Fletcher 266-80.

—. “A Hive of Industry or a Hornet’s Nest? MS Sidney Sussex 74 and Its Scribes.” Minnis, Late-Medieval Religious Texts 131-155; rpt. in Fletcher 119-142.

—. “The Summoner and the Abominable Body of Antichrist.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 18 (1996): 91-117.

—. “Langland on Preaching.” Fletcher 201-214.

—. “Chaucer the Heretic.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 25 (2003): 53-121.

–. “Compilations for Preaching and Lollard Literature, I: Compilations for Preaching.” Morgan and Thomson 317-29.

Fletcher, John M. “Inter-Faculty Disputes in Late Medieval Oxford.” Hudson and Wilks 331-42.

Flood, John. “‘Known Men”? The Identification of Lollards and Their Works.” In Heresy and Orthodoxy in Early English Literature, 1350-1680. Ed. Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin and John Flood. Dublin: Four Courts, 2010. 23-38. [Compares the difficulty of ascertaining lollardy to the difficulty of ascertaining homosexuality in the later middle ages, notably in the case of Clanvowe. Asks, then, whether “the methods employed when enquiring about medieval sexualities suggest some analogous strategies for identifying Lollards?”]

Ford, Judy Ann. John Mirk’s Festial: Orthodoxy, Lollardy, and the Common People in Fourteenth Century England. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2006. [“John Mirk’s Festial . . . is at the heart of both late-medieval heresy and the resultant reformulation of orthodoxy. It offers, in fact, an unparalleled opportunity to analyze the religious ideology communicated by the orthodox church to the vast majority of people in fourteenth-century England: the ordinary country folk. This book represents the first major examination of the Festial, looking in particular at the issues of popular culture and piety; the oral tradition; biblical and secular authority; and clerical power.”]

Forde, Simon. “Theological Sources Cited by Two Canons of Repton: Philip Repyngdon and John Eyton.” Hudson and Wilks 419-428.

—. “New Sermon Evidence for the Spread of Wycliffism.” De Ore Domini. Ed. Thomas Amos et al. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, 1989. 169-83.

—. “Social Outlook and Preaching in a Wycliffite Sermones Dominicales Collection.” Church and Chronicle in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to John Taylor. Ed. Ian Wood and G.A. Loud. London: Hambledon, 1991. 179-91.

—. “The ‘Strong Woman’ and ‘The Woman who Surrounds a Man’: Perceptions of Woman in Wyclif’s Theological Writings.” Revue D’Histoire Ecclesiastique 88.1 (1993): 54-87.

—. “La predication, les Lollards et les laics (diocese de Norwich, 1428-1429).” La Parole de Predicateur. Ed. R.M. Dessi and M. Lauwers. Nice: Centre d’Etudes Medievales, 1997. 457-78.

—. “Lay Preaching and the Lollards of Norwich Diocese, 1428-1431.” Leeds Studies in English 29 (1998): 109-26.

Foreville, R. “Manifestation de Lollardisme a Exeter, en 1421?” Le Moyen Âge 69 (1963): 691-706.

Forni, Kathleen. “The Chaucerian Apocrypha: Did Usk’s ‘Testament of Love’ and the ‘Plowman’s Tale’ Ruin Chaucer’s Early Reputation?” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 98.3 (1997): 261-72.

Forest-Hill, Lynn. “‘Mankind’ and the Fifteenth-Century Preaching Controversy.” Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England 15 (2003): 17-42.

Forrest, Ian. “Anti-Lollard Polemic and Practice in Late-Medieval England.” Clark 63-74. [This essay looks at the relationship between anti-heresy propaganda and the actual prosecution of heretics, using Philip Repingdon’s visitation of Leicester archdeaconry in 1413 as a case study. Forrest assesses the overtly polemical aspects of this propaganda, particularly the accusation that heretics were lecherous, evaluates its significance in the legal process. He goes on to argue that such polemic played a practical role in detecting heresy by stimulating the social conscience of people who had been used to reporting suspicions of clerical concubinage and lay adultery and fornication for about two centuries. (Note: an earlier version of this was previously published as “Ecclesiastical Justice and the Detection of Heresy in England, 1380-1430,” Ph.D. diss., Oxford University, 2002.]

—. The Detection of Heresy in Late Medieval England. Oxford Historical Monographs. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2005.

—. “The Dangers of Diversity: Heresy and Authority in the 1405 Case of John Edward.” Studies in Church History 43 (2007): 230-40.

—. “Defamation, Heresy, and Late Medieval Social Life.” Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 142-161.

—. “William Swinderby and the Wycliffite Attitude to Excommunication.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 60.2 (Apr. 2009): 246-269. [According to the abstract, “The early Wycliffite William Swinderby expressed some strong criticisms of excommunication. He was alarmed that churchman thought that it was their power, rather than God’s power, that consigned a soul to hell. The rhetoric of sentences of excommunication in this period was indeed intended to frighten offenders into compliance with ecclesiastical judgements, but the theory and practice of excommunication was in fact far less simple that the Wycliffite criticism of it allowed. This article examines Swinderby’s attitude towards ecclesiastical sanctions in light of Wyclif’s own ideas, and the theory and practice of excommunication in the late medieval Church. Swinderby’s links with early Wycliffism are elucidated and the relationship between Wycliffism and the Church is looked at in a new light.”]

—. “Lollardy and Late Medieval History.” Bose and Hornbeck 121-134. [In response to the increasingly interdisciplinary study of Lollardy, Forrest explores how “lollard studies” have diverged from the disciplinary study of medieval history. Considering trends in scholarship on religious orthodoxy, the history of late medieval England, and the history of late medieval Europe, he proposes directions for future research.]

—. “English Provincial Constitutions and Inquisition into Lollardy.” Flannery and Walker 45-59.

Förster, Erich. Wiklif als Bibelübersetzer.” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 12 (1891): 494-518. [>1 mb]

Foss, David B. “‘Overmuch Blaming of the Clergy’s Wealth’: Pecock’s Exculpation of Ecclesiastical Endowments.” Sheils and Wood, Church and Wealth 155-66.

Fountain, David. John Wycliffe: The Dawn of the Reformation. Southampton: Hampshire, 1984.

Fowler, David C. “John Trevisa and the English Bible.” Modern Philology 58 (1960): 81-98.

—. The Life and Times of John Trevisa, Medieval Scholar. Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 1995.

Fox, M. “John Wyclif and the Mass.” The Heythrop Journal 3 (1962): 232-40.

Frantzen, Allen J. Before the Closet: Same-Sex Love from Beowulf to Angels in America. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1998.

Frassetto, Michael. Heretic Lives: Medieval Heresy from Bogomil and the Cathars to Wyclif and Hus. London: Profile, 2007.

—. The Great Medieal Heretics: Five Centuries of Religious Dissent. New York: Bluebridge, 2008.

Freemantle, W.H. “John Wycliffe.” The Prophets of the Christian Faith. London: MacMillan, 1898. [7 mb]

Frere, Walter H. “Lollardy and the Reformation.” Church Quarterly Review 69 (1910): 426-39.

Fristedt, Sven L. The Wycliffe Bible. 3 vols. Stockholm Studies in English 4, 21, 28. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, 1953-73.

—. “The Dating of the Earliest Manuscript of the Wycliffite Bible.” Studier i modern sprakvetenskap n.s. 1 (1960): 79-85.

—. “A Weird Manuscript Enigma in the British Museum.” Studier i modern sprakvetenskap n.s. 2 (1964): 116-121.

—. “New Light on John Wycliffe and the First Full English Bible.” Studier i modern sprakvetenskap n.s. 3 (1970): 61-86.

—. “A Note on Some Obscurities in the History of the Lollard Bible.” Studier i modern sprakvetenskap n.s. 4 (1972): 38-45.

—. “Spanish Influence on Lollard Translation.” Studier i modern sprakvetenskap n.s. 5 (1975): 5-10.

Fudge, Thomas A. The Magnificent Ride: The First Reformation in Hussite Bohemia. St. Andrews Studies in Reformation History. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998. [Fudge examines the ideas rather than the history of the Hussite movement, arguing that it is the “First Reformation,” distinct from the movements begun by Wyclif or Luther, in order to “close the gap between a history of ideas and social history” (3).]

—. “Žižka’s Drum: The Political Uses of Popular Religion.” Central European History 36.4 (2003): 546-69.

—. “Hussite Theology and the Law of God.” Bagchi and Steinmetz 22-27.

—. Jan Hus: Religious Reform and Social Revolution in Bohemia. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2010. [A new study of Hus in his historical and social contexts.]

Fürstenau, Hermann. Johann von Wiclifs Lehren von der Einteilung der Kirche und von der Stellung der weltlichen Gewalt. Berlin, 1900. [2.1 mb]

Gairdner, James. “Bible Study in the Fifteenth Century.” Fortnightly Review 1 (1865): 710-20; 2 (1865): 59-78.

—. Lollardy and the Reformation in England: An Historical Survey in Four Volumes. London: Macmillan, 1908-13. [ vol. 1 (13.4 mb); vol. 2 (13.6 mb); vol. 3 (15.2 mb); vol. 4 (14.3 mb)]

Galbraith, Vivian H. “The Abbey of St. Albans from 1300 to the Dissolution of the Monasteries.” The Stanhope Essay, 1911. Oxford: Blackwell, 1911. [>1 mb]

Galloway, Andrew. “Chaucer’s Former Age and the Fourteenth-Century Anthropology of Craft: The Social Logic of a Premodernist Lyric.” ELH 63 (1996): 535-53.

Gaskin, Richard. “John Wyclif and the Theory of Complexly Signifiables.” Vivarium 47.1 (2009): 74-96. [“John Wyclif claims that there are relations of essential identity and formal distinctness connecting universals, complexly signifiables, and individuals. In some respects Wyclif’s position on complexly signifiables coincides with what I call the advanced res theory, the view that complexly signifiables are really identical with but formally distinct from worldly individuals. But there is no question in Wyclif’s treatment of a reduction of complexly signifiables to individuals. I argue that Wyclif populates his most fundamental ontological level with propositionally structured entities both individual and universal, and that this approach is superior to that of its nominalist rivals. But Wyclif shares with other versions of the advanced res theory an implausible theory of identity, and this affects the coherence of the claimed real identity between individuals and complexly signifiables.”]

Gasquet, Francis A. The Eve of the Reformation. New Ed. London: Simpkin et al., 1900. [6.1 mb]

Gasner, E. Über Wyclifs Sprache. Göttingen, 1891.

Gayk, Shannon. “‘As Plouȝmen han Preued’: The Alliterative Work of a Set of Lollard Sermons.” The Yearbook of Langland Studies 20 (2006): 43-65. [Examines “Langlandian” alliterative technique in the set of sermons edited by Cigman.]

—. Image, Text, and Reform in Fifteenth Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010. [According to the abstract, Gayk ” examines how a set of fifteenth-century writers, including Lollard authors, John Lydgate, Thomas Hoccleve, John Capgrave, and Reginald Pecock, translated complex clerical debates about the pedagogical and spiritual efficacy of images and texts into vernacular settings and literary forms. These authors found vernacular discourse to be a powerful medium for explaining and reforming contemporary understandings of visual experience. In its survey of the function of literary images and imagination, the epistemology of vision, the semiotics of idols, and the authority of written texts, this study reveals a fifteenth century that was as much an age of religious and literary exploration, experimentation, and reform as it was an age of regulation.”]

—.. “Lollard Writings, Literary Criticism, and the Meaningfulness of Form.” Bose and Hornbeck 135-152. [Observing that scholarship on Lollard texts – even from literary scholars – focuses almost exclusively on cultural and theological content rather than aesthetics, Gayk argues for more attention to the form of Lollard writings. With reference to select sermons, the Lanterne of Liȝt, and the trial of John Falks, the essay explores the potential for “new formalism” to complement and enrich the historical study of Lollardy.]

Gellrich, Jesse. Discourse and Dominion in the Fourteenth Century: Oral Contexts of Writing in Philosophy, Politics, and Poetry. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1995.

Genet, Jean-Phillippe. “Wyclif et Les Lollards.” Historiens et géographes 294 (1983): 869-96.

—. “Ecclesiastics and Political Theory in Late Medieval England: The End of a Monopoly.” Dobson 23-44.

—. “The Dissemination of Manuscripts Relating to English Political Thought in the Fourteenth Century.” England and her Neighbours, 1066-1453: Essays in Honour of Pierre Chaplais. Ed. Michael Jones and Malcolm Vale. London: Hambledon, 1989. 217-37.

Gertz, Genelle. Heresy Trials and English Women Writers, 1400-1670. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. [From the publisher: “This book charts the emergence of women’s writing from the procedures of heresy trials and recovers a tradition of women’s trial narratives from the late Middle Ages to the seventeenth century. Analyzing the interrogations of Margery Kempe, Anne Askew, Marian Protestant women, Margaret Clitherow, and Quakers Katherine Evans and Sarah Cheevers, the book examines the complex dynamics of women’s writing, preaching, and authorship under separate regimes of religious persecution and censorship.”]

—. “Heresy Inquisition and Authorship, 1400-1560.” Flannery and Walker 130-145.

Gertz-Robinson, Genelle Christine. “Trying Testimony: Heresy, Interrogation and the English Woman Writer, 1400—1670.” Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 2003. [According to the abstract, this study “tells the story of early modern women’s preaching: how it was suppressed, and the unexpected places where it broke out. It argues that women writers turned discourses meant to incriminate them to their own instructional purposes. Chapters on medieval visionary Margery Kempe (fl. 1438), Protestant reformer Anne Askew (d.1546), and Quakers Katherine Evans (d.1692) and Sarah Cheevers (fl. 1663) show these women refashioning the courtroom audience into a congregation responsive to their clerical skills. This recovered tradition of women’s preaching revises scholarship on the medieval period that attributes women’s authority to visionary rather than textual knowledge, and reveals a new sphere of women’s eloquence on a par with Renaissance humanism.”]

Gethyn-Jones, J.E. “John Trevisa—An Associate of Nicholas Hereford.” Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists’ Field Club 40.2 (1971): 241-44.

Gewirth, Alan. “Philosophical and Political Thought in the Fourteenth Century.” The Forward Movement of the Fourteenth Century. Ed. F.L. Utley. Columbus: Ohio State Univ. Press, 1961. 125-164.

Ghosh, Kantik. “Contingency and the Christian Faith: William Woodford’s Anti-Wycliffite Hermeneutics.” Poetica 49 (1998): 1-26.

—. “Eliding the Interpreter: John Wyclif and Scriptural Truth.” Copeland, Lawton, and Scase 205-24.

—. “Manuscripts of Nicholas Love’s The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ and Wycliffite Notions of ‘Authority.'” Prestige, Authority, and Power in Late Medieval Manuscripts and Texts. Ed. Felicity Riddy. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 2000. 17-34.

—. The Wycliffite Heresy: Authority and the Interpretation of Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002. [According to Ghosh, “one of the main reasons for Lollardy’s sensational resonance for its times, and for its immediate posterity, was its exposure of fundamental problems in late-medieval academic engagement with the Bible, its authority and its polemical uses. Examining Latin and English sources, Ghosh shows how the same debates over biblical hermeneutics and associated methodologies were from the 1380s onwards conducted both within and outside the traditional university framework, and how, by eliding boundaries between Latinate biblical speculation and vernacular religiosity, Lollardy changed the cultural and political positioning of both. Covering a wide range of texts–scholastic and extramural, in Latin and in English, written over half a century from Wyclif to Netter–Ghosh concludes that by the first half of the 15th century Lollardy had partly won the day. Whatever its fate as a religious movement, it had successfully changed the intellectual landscape of England.”]

—. “Nicholas Love.” Edwards (2004) 53-66.

—. “Reginald Bishop Pecock and the Idea of ‘Lollardy.'” Barr and Hutchinson 251-65. [Rather than seeking after a doctrinally discrete group, Ghosh asks “whether it would be possible to identify a set of religio-intellectual interests pointing, not exactly towards a definitively outlined ‘heretical’ profile perhaps, but nevertheless to a more or less coherent mentalité, characterized pre-eminently by an intelligent and informed criticism of authority. . . . It is here that Pecock’s works,” Ghosh continues, “can help us to refine and nuance our understanding of ‘Lollardy'” (252). Ghosh examines how Lollardy maintained some intellectual coherence, some aspects of Pecock’s “reimagined scholastic thought” in his debates with Lollardy, and moves at the end towards characterizing mid-fifteenth-century Lollardy and how it might “relate to late medieval politics of biblical interpretation” (253).}

—. “Logic and Lollardy.” Medium Aevum 76.2 (2007): 251-67. Ghosh examines “Wyclif’s meta-discursive engagement with scholastic episteme, especially the status of the arts in education. As opposed to earlier theories of the relation of the liberal arts to philosophy, which argued that the arts were “remedial,” the means by which “the ‘reasonable’ human soul is led to recognize itself and its origins, from which it has been separated” by the fall (255, 253). In the De statu innocencie, by contrast, Wyclif aligns “the idea theorica of the artes with a state of prelapsarian gracefulness and happiness, from which the methods and disciplines of contemporary academia are an inevitable decline” (257). Ghosh notes that “two consequences follow. First, the artes, in so far as they designate academic disciplines, are not longer thought of either as remedial of the fallen human condition, or as propaedeutic to an apprehension of divine truth. . . . Second, Wyclif introduces the discourse of ‘happiness’ in relation to scientia . . . to turn on its head the ‘Averroistic’ identification of happiness with the philosophical life and its associated methodologies” (257). Logic is crucial to understanding the impact of this critique on vernacular Lollardy since it lies at the core of his definition of “scriptural logic.” “This was one aspect of his thought,” Ghosh argues, “taken up most enthusiastically by his followers” (258); he examines how in the tract De oblacione iugis sacrificii.

—. “Wycliffism and Lollardy.” The Cambridge History of Christianity, 4: Christianity in Western Europe c. 1100 – c. 1500. Ed. Miri Rubin and Walter Simons. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009. 433-445. [“A governing argument of this chapter will be that the spheres of academic speculation and extra-mural religiosity across a range of social classes affected each other in ways that disable” a traditional polarity between what have been term an academic “Wycliffism” and a popular “lollardy” outside of the university. “The very shape of what emerged as ‘Lollardy,’ as well as ‘orthodoxy,’ was determined by the very rich . .. interplay between the two” (435).]

—. “Wycliffite ‘Affiliations’: Some Intellectual-Historical Perspectives.” Bose and Hornbeck 13-32. [Ghosh analyzes the combination of scholastic discourse and anti-academic polemic in a Wycliffite treatise on the Eucharist (De oblacione iugis sacrifcii), placing the treatise in the context a larger fifteenth-century debate over the appropriate method and style for theological writing, given its widening audience.] 

—. “Logic, Scepticism, and ‘Heresy’ in Early-Fifteenth Century Europe: Oxford, Vienna, Constance.” Denery, Ghosh, and Zeeman 261-83.

Gifford, William Alva. “Wyclif and the Independence of the Church in England.” American Society of Church History, ser. 2, vol. 7 (1923): 133-55.

Gilbert, Neal Ward. “Ockham, Wyclif, and the ‘Via Moderna.'” Zimmermann 85-125.

Gilchrist, J. “The Social Doctrine of John Wyclif.” Canadian Historical Association, Historical Papers 1969. 157-65.

Gillespie, Vincent. “Idols and Images: Pastoral Adaptations of the Scale of Perfection.” Langland, the Mystics, and the Medieval Religious Tradition: Essays in Honour of S.S. Hussey. Ed. Helen Phillips. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1990. 97-123.

—. “Vernacular Books of Religion.” Griffiths and Pearsall 317-344.

—. “Thy Will be Done: Piers Plowman and the Pater Noster.” Minnis, Late-Medieval Religious Texts 95-119.

—. “The Mole in the Vineyard: Wyclif at Syon in the Fifteenth Century.” Barr and Hutchinson 129-62. [Gillespie begins with a brief discussion of Birgittine history and spirituality to discuss how and why the Syon community contained many Wycliffite (and anti-Wycliffite) works, and why it would have been interested in both the academic and popular aspects of Wycliffism.]

—.“Chichele’s Church: Vernacular Theology in England after Thomas Arundel.” Gillespie and Ghosh 3-42. [Gillespie argues that the recent focus on Arundel’s Constitutions has obscured the influence of the Council of Konstanz on the fifteenth-century English church. In describing that influence, he asserts that intellectuals after Arundel’s time shared an interest in reform with the earlier followers of Wyclif at Oxford, although the two groups disagreed on the means for that reform. He explains that vernacular religious literature had continental influences and contends that, while it was often interested in liturgy and orthodox reform, it was still “imaginative and inventive.”]

Gilpin, William. The Lives of John Wicliff, and of the most Eminent of his Disciples, Lord Cobham, John Hus, Jerome of Prague, and Zizca. London, 1765. [4.8 mb]

—. The Life of John Wyclif. London, 1821.

Goheen, R.B. “Peasant Politics? Village Community and the Crown in Fifteenth-Century England.” American Historical Review 96 (1991): 42-62.

Goldberg, P.J.P. “Coventry’s Lollard Program of 1492 and the Making of Utopia.” Horrox and Jones 97-116.

Gould, Jim. “Marian heretics at Lichfield.” Transactions, Staffordshire Archaeological and Historical Society 41 (2006): 62-4.

Gradon, Pamela. “Langland and the Ideology of Dissent.” Proceedings of the British Academy 66 (1980): 179-205.

—. “Punctuation in a Middle English Sermon.” Stanley and Gray 39-48.

—. Wyclif’s Postilla and his Sermons.” Barr and Hutchinson 67-77. [“While reading the Postilla attributed to Wyclif for possible sources for the English sermons, I realized that there were major overlaps between the Postilla and the Latin sermons” (69-70). This essay moves beyond the work of Beryl Smalley to describe a number of parallels between the Postilla and other of Wyclif’s works.]

Gray, Douglas. “London, British Library, Additional MS 37049 – A Spiritual Encyclopedia.” Barr and Hutchinson 99-116. [Gray returns to this important Carthusian manuscript for a full discussion of the relationships among its images and lyrics, and its relevance to the “spiritual landscape of late medieval England” (116).]

Green, Richard F. “John Ball’s Letters: Literary History and Historical Literature.” Hanawalt 176-200.

—. A Crisis of Truth: Literature and Law in Ricardian England. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

—. “John Purvey and John of Gaunt’s Third Marriage.” Mediaeval Studies 66 (2004): 363-70. [Argues that the odd juxtaposition in Purvey’s Heresies and Errors (as recorded by Lavenham) of a discussion of the marriage of those linked in spiritual affinity (godparents) with the question of whether bastards can inherit the throne can be explained by the situation surrounding John of Gaunt’s marriage to Katherine Swynford and his ambitions for the Beauforts (his illegitimate children by Katherine) in 1396. This shows that Lollard influence on Gaunt, or at least on his extended household, lasted longer than has sometimes been supposed.]

Green, Samuel Gosnell. Wycliffe Anecdotes: Or, Incidents and Characteristics from the Life of the Great English Reformer. London: Religious Tract Society, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death.]

—. John Wycliffe, the First of the English Reformers. London, 1885. [One of several derivative biographies published to mark the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death.]

Green, Vivian H.H. “Bishop Pecock and the English Bible.” Church Quarterly Review 129 (1939-40): 281-95.

—. Bishop Reginald Pecock. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1945.

Gregory, Candace. “The Geography of Dissent: Lollardy, Popular Religion, and Church Reform in Late Medieval York.” Ph.D. Diss., Yale University, 2003. [From the abstract: “[W]as there a uniquely and identifiable northern culture that responded differently than the south to heresy and to religious concerns? The north did, in fact, develop a different religious culture from the south. The established religious culture of the north, of both the organized church and the lay spirituality, was grappling with the same issues that concerned Lollards, but came up with solutions which were perfectly in keeping with the orthodox church without falling into heresy. In at least one notable case, the mid-fourteenth century reforms of Archbishop Thoresby, York identified the problems and found the solutions before Lollardy existed. Heresy was but one response to what were perceived as problems of the late Medieval spirituality; the church of York offered its own response to those problems. The city of York was more proactive than reactive, preventing heresy from taking hold in the city or diocese by presenting an actively reforming church.”]

Gregory, D.S. “The Preachers’s Reading of Early English Literature.” The Homiletic Review 38 (1899): 368-73. [>1 mb]

Grimm, F. Der syntaktische Gebrauch der praepositionen bei Wyclif und Purvey. Marburg, 1891.

Groenevald, Leanne, “Mourning, Heresy, and Resurrection in the York Corpus Christi Cycle.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 30 (2003): 1-22.

Groneman, S.A.J. De Reuver. Diatribe in Johannis Wicliffi, Reformationis Prodromi, Vitam, Ingenium, Scripta. 1837. [For a contemporary review, with 10 other publications, see “Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics,” British Quarterly Review 28 (1858), included below. (4.7 mb)]

Grudin, Michaela Paasche. “Credulity and the Rhetoric of Heterodoxy: From Averroes to Chaucer.” The Chaucer Review 35.2 (2000): 204-222. [“Credulity,” or “the gullibility of an unletters populace” about the “controlling rhetoric of the church,” is a recurrent them in Marsilio of Padua, William of Ockham, and John Wyclif. “In their attack on official discourse, on its tendency to conceal and confuse, these writers open up more generally the issue of language and authority. At once constituting heterodoxy and masking it, their discussions of credulity urge a great public awareness of discourse and provide a rhetoric to that end.” Grudin concludes the article with a discussion of credulity in several Canterbury tales.]

Gurevich, Aaron. “Heresy and Literacy: Evidence of the Thirteenth-century Exempla.” Biller and Hudson 104-111.

Gustavson, Kevin. “Richard Rolle’s English Psalter and the Making of a Lollard Tract.” Viator 33 (2002): 294-309. [Richard Rolle’s English Psalter was frequently copied and, by the early fifteenth century, was a source of religious controversy, as one writer complained that Lollard scribes had contaminated an otherwise orthodox text by introducing heretical glosses. Modern scholars, largely content to accept this claim, have struggled to identify exclusively Lollard elements in the manuscripts. This essay reexamines the problem of defining heterodoxy in the English Psalter by focusing less on the putative sources of interpolated passages than on how features of Rolle’s original text-notably its emphasis on personal confession and its ambivalence about clerical authority-made it susceptible to both Lollard theology and ecclesiastical scrutiny. The author concludes that, while manuscript variation undoubtedly raised suspicion, the “heresy” of the English Psalter should also be seen as the product of historical change, as an ambitious vernacular text collided with a church hierarchy that was increasingly aware of the need of-and difficulty in-controlling any authoritative religious text in English.]

Gwynn, A. The English Austin Friars in the Time of Wyclif. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1940.

Gyford, Janet. Public Spirit: Dissent in Witham and Essex, 1500-1700. Privately published, 1999. [Part of this book discusses a family and its Lollard acquaintances during the 1500s.]

Haddock, Doris. “The Lollards and Social and Religious Reform.” History 1.2 (1998): 67-76. [“In this paper, the process of the merger [between religious and secular authority to defeat the social threat of Lollardy] will be examined through: an analysis of Lollard doctrine and the resultatnt activities that held inherent social implications; the allegations made by the movement’s enemies that created fear in the secular community that Lollardy was a threat to social regulation and harmony; and the resultant legislative changes which finally categorised Lollardy as subversion.”]

Hague, Dyson. The Life and Work of John Wycliffe. Church Book Room, 2nd ed., 1935.

—. Wycliffe: an Historical Study. Toronto: Church Record S.S. Publications, n.d. [A hagiographical life on Wyclif, bound together with essays on Cranmer and the Mass. (6.1 mb)]

Haigh, Christopher. English Reformations. Oxford: Clarendon, 1993.

Hailey, Arthur A. “‘Geuyng light to the reader’: Robert Crowley’s Editions of Piers Plowman (1550).” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 95 (Dec 2001): 483-502. [Hailey discusses how Robert Crowley published Piers Plowman in 1550 because he was a follower of heretic John Wyclif, whose teachings were similar to beliefs expounded in the poem. Those ties to Wyclif may have kept the poem from being published previously, but the author believes that the poem’s obscure northern dialect of Middle English is more likely to blame.]

Haines, R.M. “‘Wilde Wittes and Wilfulnes’: John Swetstock’s Attack on those ‘poyswunmongeres,’ the Lollards.” Popular Belief and Practice. Ed. G.J. Cuming and D. Baker. Studies in Church History 8. Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1972. 143-53.

—. “Church, Society, and Politics in the Early Fifteenth Century as Viewed from the English Pulpit.” Church, Society, and Politics. Ed. Derek Baker. Studies in Church History 12. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1975. 143-57.

—. “Reginald Pecock: A Tolerant Man in an Age of Intolerance.” Persecution and Toleration. Studies in Church History 21. Ed. W.J. Sheils. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984. 125-137.

Halasey, Steven Douglas. “Interview with Anne Hudson.” Comitatus 13 (1982): 5-15.

Hall, Kathryn. “Teaching Margery Kempe in Tandem with the Wife of Bath: Lollardy, Mysticism, and ‘Wandyrnge by the Weye.” South Atlantic Review 72.4 (Fall, 2007): 59.71. [“This article discusses the difficulty in teaching and translating works by authors Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich. The article suggests that modern readers are unfamiliar with mysticism and that college students would be better served to learn about both authors in a British literature survey course. Also evaluated is the benefit of studying Kempe alongside “The Wife of Bath’s Tale,” by Geoffrey Chaucer.”]

Hall, L.B. The Perilous Vision of John Wyclif. Chicago: Nelson Hall, 1983.

Hammond, Gerald. “What was the Influence of the Medieval English Bible upon the Renaissance Bible?” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 77.3 (1995): 87-95.

Hankey, Wayne John. “‘Magis . . . Pro Nostra Sentencia‘: John Wyclif, His Mediaeval Predecessors and Reformed Successors, and a Pseudo-Augustinian Eucharistic Decretal.” Augustiniana 45, fasc. 3-4 (1995): 213-245.

Hanna III, Ralph. “The Text of the Memoriale Credencium.” Neophilologus 67:2 (1983): 284-92.

—. “The Origins and Production of Westminster School MS. 3.” Studies in Bibliography 41 (1988): 197-218. Rpt. in Hanna 35-47.

—. “The Difficulty of Ricardian Prose Translation: The Case of the Lollards.” Modern Language Quarterly 51:3 (1990): 319-40.

—. “Two Lollard Codices and Lollard Book Production.” Studies in Bibliography 43 (1990): 49-62. Rpt. in Hanna 48-59.

—. “Some Norfolk Women and Their Books.” The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women. ed. June Hall McCash. Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1996. 288-305.

—. “‘Vae Octuplex,’ Lollard Socio-textual Ideology, and Ricardian-Lancastrian Prose Translation.” Copeland 244-263.

—. “Will’s Work.” Justice and Kerby-Fulton 23-66.

—. “English Biblical Texts Before Lollardy and their Fate.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 141-53.

—. “Dr. Peter Partridge and MS Digby 98.” Barr and Hutchinson 41-65. [On Partridge’s “Notebook,” describing the contents of the manuscript and how it reveals his turn towards “favouring heretical, Lollard opinions” (44).]

—. “Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 647 and its Use, c.1410-2010.” In Textual Cultures: Cultural Texts. Ed. Orietta Da Rold and Elaine Treharne. Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer, 2010. 141-161. [Along with Cambridge, Corpus Christi Coll. 296 and Dublin, Trinity Coll. 244 (discussed by Hanna in “Two Lollard Codices”), Bodley 647 shows “access to a common Lollard copying centre or ‘library.” Hanna describes the history of the volume’s early use and interpretation, and concludes with an argument for its thematic coherence “devoted to a discussion of proper priesthood.” An appendix provides a full collation.]

Hanna, William. Wycliffe and the Huguenots; or, Sketches of the Rise of the Reformation in England, and of the Early History of Protestantism in France. Edinburgh, 1860. [3.6 mb]

Hanrahan, T.J. “John Wyclif’s Political Activity.” Mediaeval Studies 20 (1958): 154-66.

Hansen, H.M. “The Peasant’s Revolt of 1381 and the Chronicles.” Journal of Medieval History 6 (1980): 393-415.

Hansford-Miller, F. The Diocesan Changes of King Henry VIII, and the Friars and the Lollards. A History and Geography of Western Religion 7. Canterbury-Yanchep, Western Australia: Abcado Publishers, 1992.

Happé, Peter. John Bale. New York: Twayne, 1996.

Harding, W.H. The Morning Star of the Reformation: John Wycliffe. London, 1913.

Hardwick, Paul. “Breaking the Rules that ‘Ben Not Writen’: Reginald Pecock and the Vernacular.” Parergon 19.2 (July, 2002): 101-18.

Hargreaves, Henry. “The Latin Text of Purvey’s Psalter.” Medium Aevum 24 (1955): 73-90.

—. “An Intermediate Version of the Wycliffite Old Testament.” Studia Neophilologica 28 (1956): 130-47.

—. “The Middle English Primers and the Wycliffite Bible.” The Modern Language Review 51.2 (Apr., 1956): 215-17.

—. “The Marginal Glosses to the Wycliffite New Testament.” Studia Neophilologica 33 (1961): 285-300.

—. “From Bede to Wyclif: Medieval English Bible Translations.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 48.1 (1965): 118-140.

—. “Wyclif’s Prose.” Essays and Studies 19 (1966): 1-17.

—. “The Wycliffite Versions.” The Cambridge History of the Bible, vol. 2. Ed. G.W.H. Lampe. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1969. 387-415.

—. “Sir John Oldcastle and Wycliffite Views on Clerical Marriage.” Medium Aevum 42 (1973): 141-46.

—. “Popularising Biblical Scholarship: The Role of the Wycliffite Glossed Gospels.” The Bible and Medieval Culture. Ed. W. Lourdaux and D. Verhelst. Leuven: Leuven Univ. Press, 1979. 171-89.

—. “The Wycliffite Glossed Gospels as Source: Further Evidence.” Traditio 48 (1993): 247-51.

Harper-Bill, Christopher. The Pre-Reformation Church in England, 1400-1530. Revised ed. New York: Longman, 1996.

Harrison, F. “A Hitherto-unnoticed Biblical Manuscript in the Library of the Dean and Chapter of York.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 29 (1946): 286-303.

Harriss, G.L. Cardinal Beaufort: A Study of Lancastrian Ascendancy and Decline. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.

Hartel, Helmar. “Sermon Literature.” Edwards (1984) 177-207.

Harvey, Margaret M. “English Views on the Reforms to be Undertaken in the General Councils (1400-1418) with special reference to the proposals made by Richard Ullerston.” D. Phil Thesis. U. of Oxford, 1964.

—. “The Case for Urban VI in England to 1390.” Genèse et débuts du Grand Schisme d’Occident. Ed. Jean Favier et al. Paris: Éditions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1980. 541-60.

—. Solutions to the Great Schism: A Study of Some English Attitudes, 1378 to 1409. Kirchengeschichtliche Quellen und Studien, b. 12. St. Ottilien: EOS Verlag, 1983.

—. “Lollardy and the Great Schism: Some Contemporary Perceptions.” Hudson and Wilks 385-96.

—. “The Diffusion of the Doctrinale of Thomas Netter in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries.” Intellectual Life in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to Margaret Gibson. Ed. L. Smith and B. Ward. London: Hambledon, 1992. 281-94.

—. England, Rome, and the Papacy, 1414-1464: The Study of a Relationship. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 1993.

—. “Adam Easton and the Condemnation of John Wyclif.” English Historical Review 113 (April 1998): 321-35.

—. The English in Rome 1362-1420: Portrait of an Expatriate Community. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.

Havens, Jill C. “A Curious Erasure in Walsingham’s Short Chronicle and the Politics of Heresy.” Given-Wilson 95-106. [Havens considers the erasure of the names of the Lollard knights from a copy of Walsingham’s Short Chronicle in Bodleian Library, Bodley MS 316, and suggests that a later owner of Bodley 316, Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, might have been involved.]

—. “‘As Englishe is comoun langage to oure puple’: the Lollards and their Imagined English Community.” In Imagining a Medieval English Nation. Ed. Kathy Lavezzo. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press, 2003. 96-128. [Havens agees with Anne Hudson that nationalism was not a determinant of Lollardy, but she proposes, reversing Hudson’s formulation, that the Lollardy heresy might have been a catalyst or “contributing factor in the emergence of English nationalism” (96). She goes on to clarify that Lollardy was not a nationalistic heretical movement but nevertheless, “Lollards were at some level conscious of their role in the emergence of an English nationalism; at the same time the language of their texts seems reliant upon a preexistent idea of an English national identity” (98).]

—. “Shading the Grey Area: Determining Heresy in Middle English Texts.” Barr and Hutchinson 337-52. [Hudson used the term “grey area” to describe texts which seem to fall somewhere between Lollardy and orthodox, by readership and/or by content. Attending to both textual and scribal relationships, and to what Hudson has called a “Lollard sect vocabulary,” Havens maps out a group of indeterminate texts connected to Oxford, University College MS 97 in order to “disentangle” their religious affiliations and provide a clearer picture of the lands between the poles of orthodox and heterodox belief.]

Healey, J.E. “John of Gaunt and John Wyclif.” Canadian Catholic Historical Report (1962): 41-75.

Hearnshaw, F.J.C. “John Wycliffe and Divine Dominion.” The Social and Political Ideas of Some Great Medieval Thinkers. Ed. F.J.C. Hearnshaw. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1923. 192-223.

Heidtmann, P. “Wycliffe and the Lollards: A Reforming Heretical Sect at the End of the Fourteenth Century.” History Today 29 (1970): 724-32.

Heine, Dietrich. “Wiclifs Lehre vom Güterbesitz.” Dissertation. Friedrich-Alexanders-Universität, Erlangen, 1903. Gütersloh, 1903. [>1 mb]

Helfert, Joseph A. Hus und Hieronymus. Prague, 1858. [7.9 mb]

Heller, Ludwig. Hieronymus von Prag. Lubed, 1835. [2.9 mb]

Henry, Desmond P. Medieval Mereology. Amsterdam: Grüner, 1991.

Herold, Vilém. “Wyclif’s Philosophy and Platonic Ideas.” Filozoficky Casopis 33 (1985): 47-96.

—. [Prague University and Wyclif: Wyclif’s Teachings about Ideas and the Beginning of the Hussite Revolutionary Thought]. Prague: Univ. of Karlova, 1985.

—. “Wyclif Polemik gegen Ockhams Auffassung der platonischen Ideen und ihr Nachklang in der tschechischen hussitischen Philosophie.” Hudson and Wilks 185-216.

—. “Platonic Ideas and ‘Hussite’ Philosophy.” David R. Holeton, ed. The Bohemian Reformation and Religious Practice, vol. 1. Papers from the 17th World Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences. Prague: Academic of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Main Library, 1994. 13-18.

—. “Wyklif als Reformer: Die philosophische Dimension.” Seibt, et al. 39-47.

—. “How Wycliffite was the Bohemian Reformation?” Zdenek V. David and David R. Holeton, eds. The Bohemian Reformation and Religious Practice, vol. 2. Papers from the 18th World Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences. Prague: Academic of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Main Library, 1998. 25-38.

—. “Zum Prager philosophischen Wyclifismus.” Šmahel and Müller-Luckner 133-146.

—. “Philosophy in Prague University in the Pre-Hussite Period: Schola Aristotelis or Platonis Divinissimi?” Filosoficky Casopis 47 (1999): 5-14. [Herold notes that the terms “schola Aristotelis” and “Plato divinissimi” originated with Hus and are both directly linked to the teaching in the arts faculty of Prague University at the beginning of the 15th century. While the terms might indicate a negative view of Aristotle, the study of philosophy in Prague, Herold shows, was apparently no less “Aristotelian” than in other European universities of the time. He then goes on to demonstrate that the sympathy for Platonism in this Aristotelian context was increased by the introduction of Wycliffe’s writings, a trend which later played an important role in the development of Hussite ideas.]

Herrick, S.E. Some Heretics of Yesterday. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1885. [Wyclif and Hus are included among twelve others. (3.9 mb)]

Heseltine, George C. “The Myth of Wyclif.” Thought 7 (1932): 108-21.

Heymann, Frederick G. John Žižka and the Hussite Revolution. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1955.

Heyworth, P.L. “The Earliest Black-Letter Editions of Jack Upland.” Huntington Library Quarterly 30 (1967): 307-14.

—. “Jack Upland’s Rejoinder: A Lollard Interpolator and Piers Plowman B.X.245f.” Medium Aevum 36 (1967): 242-48.

Hill, Bracy V. “Apocalyptic Lollards? The Conservative Use of the Book of Daniel in English Wycliffite Sermons.” Church History and Religious Culture 90.1 (2010): 1-23. [From the article abstract: “This study asserts that the Middle English Wycliffite sermons’ focus upon the Old Testament prophetic literature as a source of figures fulfilled in the New Testament, the reluctance of the politically conservative Wycliffite movement to embrace a radical apocalyptic vision, and the overriding concern of Lollard hermeneuts to acquire certitude resulted in the limited use of the book of Daniel in Wycliffite sermonic literature.”]

Hill, Christopher. “From Lollards to Levellers.” Rebels and their Causes: Essays in Honour of A.L. Morton. Ed. M. Conforth. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1978. 49-67.

Hoenen, J. F. M. “Jean Wyclif et les universalia realia: le débat sur la notion de virtus sermonis au Moyen Âge tardif et les rapports entre la théologie et la philosophie.” J.-L. Solère & Z. Kaluza, eds. La servante et la consolatrice: La philosophie dans ses rapports avec la théologie au Moyen Âge. Paris: Vrin, 2002. 173-92.

—. “Theology and Metaphysics. The Debate between John Wyclif and John Kenningham on the Principles of Reading the Scriptures.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 23-56.

Hollack, E. “Vergleichende Studien zu der Hereford, Wyclif, und Purvey Bibelübersetzung und der lateinischen Vulgata.” Dissertation. Universität Leipzig, 1903. [1.5 mb]

Holmes, George. “Cardinal Beaufort and the Crusade against the Hussites.” English Historical Review 88 (1973): 721-50.

—. The Good Parliament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975.

Holsinger, Bruce. “The Vision of Music in a Lollard Florilegium: Cantus in the Middle English Rosarium Theologie (Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College MS 354/581).” Plainsong and Medieval Music 8.2 (1999): 95-106. [Abstract: “Despite their intriguing testimony to the vagaries of musical life in late medieval England, relatively little attention has been given by musicologists and historians of religion to the wealth of commentary on liturgical and secular music penned by the followers of the Oxford heretic John Wyclif. In a brief mention of this material in The Premature Reformation, her magisterial study of Wyclif and the Lollards, Anne Hudson suggests that the Lollards’ suspicion of musical display reflected their more general hostility towards the decoration of churches.”]

—. Lollard Ekphrasis: Situated Aesthetics and Literary History.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 35 (2005): 67-90. [This essay responds to James Simpson’s Reform and Cultural Revolution (Oxford, 2002), particularly Simpson’s “stated exclusion of Lollard writings from the domain of ‘literary history.’” Holsinger argues that Lollard writings participate in a “situated aesthetics” and uses Pierce the Plowman’s Crede as an example.]

Holt, Emily Sarah. John de Wycliffe, The First of the Reformers and What He Did for England. London, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death. Holt also wrote much fiction, some of which is included on the page of Lollard Fiction and Youth Literature.]

Holton, Amanda. “Which Bible did Chaucer Use? The Biblical Tragedies in the Monk’s Tale” Notes and Queries 55.1 (2008): 13-17. [Holton compares Biblical passages from the Monk’s Tale with the Wycliffite version and finds that, unlike Ramsay’s conclusion [Ramsay, “Chaucer and the Wycliffite Bible”] Chaucer almost surely did not use it, and could not have anyway since it was most likely not available when he composed the tale. It is most likely that Chaucer relied upon the Vulgate, or perhaps the French Bible Historiale.]

Hope, Andrew. “Lollardy: the Stone the Builders Rejected?” Protestantism and the National Church in the Sixteenth Century. Ed. P. Lake and M. Dowling. London: Croom Helm, 1987. 1-35.

—. “The Lady and the Bailiff: Lollardy among the Gentry in Yorkist and Early Tudor England.” Aston and Richmond 250-277.

Hornbeck, J. Patrick. “The development of heresy: doctrinal variation in English “Lollard” dissent, 1381-1521.” D.Phil. Diss, Univ. of Oxford, 2007.

—. “Lollard Sermons? Soteriology and Late Medieval Dissent.” Notes and Queries 53.1 (Mar. 2006): 26-30. [“The article comments on the book “Lollard Sermons,” edited by Gloria Cigman. The book has attracted extensive agnosticism as to its provenance. The link between the sermons and the vernacular heterodox movement was also questioned. It is noted that the theological standing of Cigman’s sermons share a host of similarities with other semi-Pelagian text and offer few clues as to their chronology.”]

—. “Of Captains and Antichrists: The Papacy in Wycliffite Thought.” Revue d’Histoire Ecclésiastique 103.3-4 (Jul.-Dec. 2008): 806-38. According to it’s abstract, “t is commonplace to treat the Wycliffite or lollard dissenters of late medieval England as “strongly antipapal,” to borrow the words of one historian. To the contrary, however, a close examination of John Wyclif’s views of the papacy as well as the theological and polemical writings of those who followed in his footsteps and the records of contemporary heresy trials reveals a surprising degree of moderation. Wyclif and later lollards criticized the abuses of the medieval papacy but did not demand its abolition as an institution; instead, they argued that the papacy (like the clergy as a whole) should be brought back, forcibly if needs be, to a set of ideal standards of behavior that Wyclif and other dissenting writers associated with the apostolic era.”

—. “Antifraternalism and the Upland Series: Evidence from a Fifteenth-Century Ballad.” Notes & Queries 56.1 (Mar. 2009): 24-26. [“The article discusses antifraternalism in the 15th century ballad “Friar and Boy” about the characters Jack, the Friar Tobias, and Jack’s Stepmother. According to the article, English antifraternal authors wrote about death and its aftermath, diabolical influence, and the fulfilment of biblical prophecy. The ballad also doesn’t seem to come from the lollardy or Wycliffism literary movements, where lollard writers abstained from fiction and favored ecclesiastical history. An overview of the ballad is given. The article discusses if the anonymously written “Upland Series” of three texts about the fraternal orders with its characters Jack and Tobias.”]

—. “Theologies of Sexuality in English ‘Lollardy.'” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 60.1 (Jan. 2009): 19-44. [According to the abstract, “Using the records of heresy trials as well as the vernacular texts composed by English dissenters during the period 1381–1521, this article chronicles the development of Wycliffite and Lollard views about sexuality and lay and clerical marriage. John Wyclif’s Latin writings reveal that he both professed caution about clerical marriage and articulated a culturally traditional theology of sexuality. Whereas his hesitation at the prospect of a married clergy gave way to enthusiasm among later dissenters, his ideas about lay sexuality resonated with dissenting and mainstream writers alike. The evidence calls further into doubt the view that Lollardy was an innovative movement with respect to issues of gender and sexuality.”]

—. What is a Lollard? Dissent and Belief in Late Medieval England. Oxford Theological Monographs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. [“This is a book not only about lollards but also about the terms and categories that have been used to describe them: through the process of documenting and analysing the dissenting beliefs preserved in lollard texts and the records of heresy trials, what becomes apparent is that there is no static essence that we can call lollardy. Rather than a narrowly defined theological category, lollardy is and has been a capacious term, under which all manner of religious outliers await closer examination. Hornbeck explores the wide range of lollard beliefs on some of the key issues in late medieval Christianity: how one is saved; what truly happens in the sacrament of the eucharist; who can get married, and why; whether there should exist discrete orders of clergy, or even the pope. He argues that the beliefs of individual dissenters were conditioned by a number of social, textual, and cultural factors, including the ideas they discussed with other members of their local communities, the texts to which they had access, and the influence of mainstream religion and spirituality.”]

—. “Barn of Unity or the Devil’s Church? Salvation and Ecclesiology in Langland and the Wycliffites.” Medieval Poetics and Social Practice: Responding to the Work of Penn R. Szittya. Ed. Seeta Chaganti. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. 33-52.

—. “Wycklyffes Wycket and Eucharistic Theology: Cases from Sixteenth-Century Winchester.” Bose and Hornbeck 279-294. [Hornbeck examines records from two early sixteenth-century heresy trials in Kingston upon Thames and Farnham, asking what they can tell us about dissenters’ use of vernacular texts and how those texts may have influenced dissenting views on the Eucharist.]

—. “‘A Prophane or Hethyn Thing’: English Lollards on Baptism and Confirmation.” Mediaeval Studies 74 (2012): 283-306. [This article surveys Wyclif’s writings about sacraments of initiation, especially focusing on the Trialogus, as well as trial court records of lollards that addressed baptism and, more rarely, confirmation. Hornbeck concludes that critiques of these sacraments were complex and diverse, with lollard positions varying considerably from those articulated by Wyclif.]

Horner, Patrick J. “Benedictines and Preaching in Fifteenth-century England: the Evidence of Two Bodleian Library Manuscripts.” Revue Benedictine 99 (1989): 313-22.

—. “‘The King Taught us the Lesson’: Benedictine Support for Henry V’s Suppression of the Lollards.” Mediaeval Studies 52 (1990): 190-220.

Houlbrooke, R.A. “Persecution of Heresy and Protestantism in the Diocese of Norwich under Henry VIII.” Norfolk Archaeology 35 (1972): 308-26.

Howard, Donald. Chaucer: His Life, His Works, His World. New York: Random House, 1987.

Hudson, Anne. “A Lollard Quaternion.” Review of English Studies n.s. 22 (1971): 451-65. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 192-200.

—. “A Lollard Sermon-Cycle and its Implications.” Medium Aevum 40 (1971): 142-56.

—. “The Expurgation of a Lollard Sermon Cycle.” Journal of Theological Studies n.s. 22 (1971): 435-42. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 201-15.

—. “A Lollard Compilation and the Dissemination of Wycliffite Thought.” Journal of Theological Studies n.s. 23 (1972): 65-81. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 13-29.

—. “Some Aspects of Lollard Book Production.” Baker, Schism 147-57. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 181-191.

—. “A Lollard Mass.” Journal of Theological Studies n.s. 23 (1972): 407-19. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 112-123.

—. “Contributions to a History of Wycliffite Writings.” Notes and Queries 218 (1973): 443-53. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 1-12.

—. “The Examination of Lollards.” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 46 (1973): 145-59. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 124-140, with an Appendix.

—. “A Lollard Compilation in England and Bohemia.” Journal of Theological Studies n.s. 25 (1974): 129-40. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 30-42.

—. “The Debate on Bible Translation, Oxford 1401.” English Historical Review 90 (1975): 1-18. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 66-84.

—. “A Neglected Wycliffite Text.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 29 (1978): 257-79. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 43-65.

— “A Lollard Sect Vocabulary?” Benskin and Samuels 15-30. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 164-180.

—. “Some Problems of Identity and Identifications in Wycliffite Writings.” Edwards and Pearsall 81-90.

—. “John Purvey: A Reconsideration of the Evidence for his Life and Writings.” Viator 12 (1981): 355-80. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 85-110.

—. “Lollardy: The English Heresy?” Religion and National Identity. Ed. Stuart Mews. Studies in Church History 18. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1982. 261-83. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 141-63.

—. “‘No Newe Thing’: The Printing of Medieval Texts in the Early Reformation Period.” Middle English Studies Presented to Norman Davis. Ed. Douglas Gray and Eric Stanley. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1983. 153-74. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 227-48.

—. “Observations on a Northerner’s Vocabulary.” Stanley and Gray 74-83. Rpt. in Hudson, Lollards and their Books 217-26.

—. John Wyclif and his Influence in England: A Commemorative Exhibition Held in Lambeth Palace Library June 4-July 26, 1984. London: Lambeth Palace Library, 1984.

—. “Wycliffite Prose.” Edwards (1984) 249-70.

—. “A New Look at the Lay Folk’s Catechism.” Viator 16 (1985): 243-258.

—. “A Wycliffite Scholar of the Early Fifteenth Century.” Walsh and Wood 301-315.

—. “Wyclif and the English Language.” Kenny 85-103.

—. “Wycliffism in Oxford 1381-1411.” Kenny 67-84.

—. “Biblical Exegesis in Wycliffite Writings.” John Wyclif 61-79.

—. “The Lay Folk’s Catechism: A Postscript.” Viator 18 (1988): 307-309.

—. “The Legacy of Piers Plowman.” Alford 251-266.

—. The Premature Reformation: Wycliffite Texts and Lollard History. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988. [Perhaps the most crucial study of Wycliffism. The volume starts with “The Problem of Sources” to discuss the problematic nature of manuscript evidence–what texts are there? how can they be dated? what is the boundary between a Wycliffite and non-Wycliffite text? It then covers the history of the movement’s origins, aspects of Lollard social and textual practices (social relations, education, Biblical scholarship). Three chapters discuss the nature of Wycliffite thought: its theology, ecclesiology, and politics. Two final chapters consider “the Context of Vernacular Wycliffism” and “The Re-Emergence of Reform.” The books implicit argument is the Wycliffism did constitute a coherent movement, in thought and in material practices, and from this seeks to identify what they are.]

—. “William Thorpe and the Question of Authority.” Christian Authority: Essays in Honour of Henry Chadwick. Ed. G.R. Evans. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988. 127-37.

—. “Lollard Book Production.” Griffiths and Pearsall 125-142.

—. “The Mouse in the Pyx: Popular Heresy and the Eucharist.” Trivium 26 (1991): 40-53.

—. “The King and Erring Clergy: A Wycliffite Contribution.” Wood, Church and Sovereignity 269-78.

—. “John Wyclif.” The English Religious Tradition and the Genius of Anglicanism. Ed. Geoffrey Rowell. Wantage: Ikon, 1992. 65-78.

—. “The Variable Text.” Minnis, Crux and Controversy 49-60.

—. “Aspects of the ‘Publication’ of Wyclif’s Latin Sermons.” Minnis, Late-Medieval Religious Texts 121-29.

—. “The Hussite Catalogues of Wyclif’s Works.” Pánek, Polívka, and Rejchrtová 401-18.

—. “Laicus Litteratus: The Paradox of Lollardy.” Biller and Hudson 222-236.

—. “Piers Plowman and the Peasant’s Revolt: A Problem Revisited.” Yearbook of Langland Studies 8 (1994): 85-106.

—. “‘Confession to God, Confession to True Men: Aspects of Wycliffite Practice.” La Confession et les confessions: Culture et religion dans le pays anglophones. Ed. C. d’Haussy. Paris: Didier-Erudition, 1995. 43-51.

—. “Piers Plowman and the Peasant’s Revolt: A Problem Revisited.” Yearbook of Langland Studies 8 (1995): 85-106.

—. “Trial and Error: Wyclif’s Works in Cambridge, Trinity College MS B.16.2.” New Science out of Old Books: Studies in Manuscripts and Early Printed Books in Honour of A.I. Doyle. Ed. Richard Beadle and A.J. Piper. Aldershot: Scolar, 1995. 53-80.

—. “William Taylor’s 1406 Sermon: A Postscript.” Medium Aevum 64:1 (1995): 100-06.

—. “Lollardy and Eschatology.” Patschovsky and Šmahel 99-113.

—. “‘Springing Cocke in our clene corn’: Lollard Preaching in England around 1400.” Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persection, and Rebellion, 1000-1500. Ed. S.L. Waugh and P.D. Diehl. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996. 132-47.

—. “From Oxford to Prague: The Writings of John Wyclif and his English Followers in Bohemia.” Slavonic and East European Review 75 (Oct. 1997): 642-58.

—. “Hermofodrita or Ambidexter: Wycliffite Views on Clerks in Secular Office.” Aston and Richmond 41-51.

—. Visio Baleii: An Early Literary Historian. The Long Fifteenth Century: Essays for Douglas Gray. Ed. Helen Cooper and Sally Mapstone. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. 313-29.

—. “Poor Preachers, Poor Men: Views of Poverty in Wyclif and his Followers.” Šmahel and Müller-Luckner 41-54.

—. “Cross Referencing in Wyclif’s Latin Works.” Biller and Dobson 193-216.

—. “Accessus ad auctorem: The Case of John Wyclif.” Viator 30 (1999): 323-44.

—. “Peculiaris regis clericus: Wyclif and the Issue of Authority.” The Growth of Authority in the Medieval West. Ed. M. Gosman, A.J. Vanderjagh, and J.R. Veenstra. Groningen: Mediaevalia Groningana, 1999. 63-81.

—. “Wyclif and the North: The Evidence from Durham.” Wood, Life and Thought 87-103.

—. “Wyclif’s Latin Sermons: Questions of Form, Date and Audience.” Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge 68 (2001): 223-48. [Hudson notes that Wyclif left a large number of Latin sermons, but these, although printed by Loserth amongst the editions of the Wyclif Society, have been less frequently studied than his other writings. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the manuscript preservation and arrangement of the sermons, their date of origin and the audience for whom they were intended.]

—. “Which Wyche?” The Framing of the Lollard Heretic and/or Saint.” In Texts and the Repression of Medieval Heresy. Ed. Caterina Bruschi and Peter Biller. York Studies in Medieval Theology. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2002. 221-37. [The evidence for medieval heresy always comes shaped by rhetoric, whether that of opponent or follower; the modern critic inevitably not only reacts to that rhetoric but necessarily uses it also, even if not always consciously. The case of Richard Wyche offers a rare instance in Lollardy where records survive from both sides of the story. Yet those records can only produce a coherent account through the interpretation of their details, an interpretation which needs to understand their polemic but which may go (or be tempted to go) beyond what is strictly declared in them.]

—. “Notes of an Early Fifteenth-Century Research Assistant, and the Emergence of the 267 Articles against Wyclif.” English Historical Review 118.477 (June, 2003) 685-97. [In 1411 Archbishop Arundel was sent a list of 267 extracts from Wyclif’s work to support his condemnation for heresy. Magdalen College lat.99 contains a listing of these articles which must be preliminary to the final list sent to the Archbishop, compiled “between Easter 1410 and the end of the year” (690). Hudson goes on to examine the late life and importance of the 267 conclusions. It is possible that the lack of reference to several of Wyclif’s works in this draft indicates that they were no longer present in Oxford.]

—. “Langland and Lollardy.”The Yearbook of Langland Studies 17 (2003): 93-106. This essay is a response to the special section on “Langland and Lollardy” (see other entries in the volume by Aers, Cole, and Somerset). [Hudson prefaces her response with a note that “few full-scale debates on this crucial question have recently been undertaken” on the dates of the different versions of Piers Plowman, and that “an argument that starts without an underlying interpretive argument to support could yet be illuminating”–that is, an argument based solely on manuscript or other “hard” evidence (94). She goes on to argue, in response to Cole’s essay, that Langland’s use of “loller(e)” cannot be determined with reference to later documents, especially since the register of the term “was within that most unpredictable realm of the affective” (96). She notes the relative absence of the term in the contemporary documentary record and argues that, as she has before, that the use of loller(e) in both the B- and C-texts is not “sect-specific” (100). In response to Aers’s essay, Hudson argues that he overstates the differences between Langland and Wyclif on the subject of poverty, and she cites texts that offer a “more nuanced account” of Wyclif’s views (102). In response to Somerset’s essay, Hudson agrees that vernacular Wycliffite texts recall Piers Plowman in the way that they reinterpret Latin academic cases, and she adds Dives and Pauper to Somerset’s list of texts.]

—. “The Development of Wyclif’s Summa Theologiae.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 57-70.

—. “English Wycliffites and the Events of Their Times.” Reformer als Ketzer: heterodoxe Bewegungen von Vorreformatoren. Günter Frank and Friedrich Niewöhner, eds. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, 2004: 181-95.

—. “Notes on the Sources of the Sermons of MS British Library Harley 2268.” Notes and Queries n.s. 51.2 (2004): 122-24.

—. “Peter Pateshull: One Time Friar and Poet?” Interstices: Studies in Middle English and Anglo-Latin Texts in Honour of A.G. Rigg. Ed. Richard F. Green and Linne R Mooney. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 2004. 167-83.

—. “The Problems of Scribes: The Trial Records of William Swinderby and Walter Brut.” Nottingham Mediaeval Studies 49 (2005): 80-104.

—. “Dangerous Fictions: Indulgences in the Thought of Wyclif and his Followers.” Promissory Notes on the Treasury of Merits: Indulgences in Late Medieval Europe. Ed R.N. Swanson. Leiden: Brill, 2007. 197-214.

—. “Compilations for Preaching and Lollard Literature, II: Lollard Literature.” Morgan and Thomson 329-39.

—. “Wyclif’s Books.” Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 8-36.

—. “Thomas Netter’s Doctrinale and the Lollards.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 179-97. [Asking “how much did Netter know of either Wyclif or Lollardy?,” Hudson discusses the evidence left in the Doctrinale for Netter’s knowledge of individual Wycliffites and Wycliffite texts.]

—. “Five Problems in Wycliffite Texts and a Suggestion.” Medium Ævum 80.2 (2011): 301- 324. [Examines problems with the five major Wycliffite textual productions—the Bible, the Floretum/Rosarium, the Glossed Gospels, the Revision of Rolle’s Psalter Commentary, and the sermon cycle. Hudson posits that similarities in physical and textual production found among them probably indicate a relatively unified program of compilation. Given these, and similar productions among Oxford Franciscans, Hudson suggests that the Oxford Greyfriars provides a possible location for their production, and considers arguments for and against this hypothesis.]

—. “Aspects of Tradition in English Wycliffism.” In Confession and Nation in the Era of Reformations. Central Europe in Comparative Perspective. Ed. Eva Doležalová and Jaroslav Pánek. Praha (Prague): Historický ústav, 2011. 53-62.

—. “‘Who Is My Neighbor?’ Some Problems of Definition on the Borders of Orthodoxy and Heresy.” Bose and Hornbeck 79-96. [With three vignettes, Hudson argues that there was considerably less division between “orthodox” and “heterodox” texts in late medieval England than the writings of Archbishop Arundel or William Thorpe would suggest. The vignettes feature the Rolle Psalter commentary in Oxford Bodleian Library MS Bodley 953, contrary assessments of the orthodoxy of Dives and Pauper, and Oriel College’s commissioning of Wyclif’s De civili dominio and De blasfemia in 1454.]

—. “So Far and Yet So Near.” Preaching the Word in Manuscript and in Print in Late Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Susan Powell. Ed. Martha W. Driver and Veronica O’Mara. Turnhout: Brepols, 2013. 49-62. [Demonstrating that a geographically remote manuscript may contain a superior text to those remaining in England, Hudson explains why two Bohemian copies of Wyclif’s sermons provide a more accurate witness than the Cambridge, Trinity College manuscript that is the basis for the Wyclif Society’s late nineteenth century edition. The relevant manuscripts are Cambridge, Trinity College, MS B.16.2 and Wolfenbüttel Herzog August Bibliothek MSS Helmstedt 306 and 565.]

Hudson, Anne, and Helen L. Spencer. “Old Author, New Work: The Sermons of MS Longleat 4.” Medium Aevum 53 (1984): 220-238.

Hudson, Anne, and Anthony Kenny. “Wyclif, John (d. 1384).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004; online edn., May 2008. [This entry not only gives a biography but a brief overview of his problematic theology. Hudson also contributed the following entries to the DNB: “Ashwardby, John (fl. c.1380–c.1400),” “Binham [Bynham, Vynham, Rynnan], William (fl. c. 1374–1396),” “Butler, William (d. after 1416),” “Dymoke [Dymock], Roger (fl. 1370–c.1400),” “Kenningham [Kynyngham], John (d. 1399),” “Netter [Walden], Thomas (c.1370–1430),” “Palmer, Thomas (fl. 1371–1415),” “Pateshull, Peter (fl. 1387),” “Purvey, John (c. 1354–1414),” “Stokes, Peter (d. 1399),” “Swinderby, William (fl. 1382–1392),” “Thorpe, William (fl. 1381–1407),” and “Winterton, Thomas (d. 1400×02).”

Hughes, Jonathan. Pastors and Visionaries: Religious and Secular Life in Late Medieval Yorkshire. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1988.

Hunt, Alison M. “Macalating Mary: The Detractors of the N-Town Cycle’s ‘Trial of Joseph and Mary.'” Philological Quarterly 73.1 (Winter, 1994): 11-30.

Hurley, Michael. “‘Scriptura Sola’: Wyclif and His Critics.” Traditio 16 (1960): 275-352.

—. “A Pre-Tridentine Theology of Tradition: Thomas Netter of Walden (d. 1430).” Heythrop Journal 4 (1963): 348-66.

Irvine, Annie Sowell. “The Participle in Wycliffe, with Especial Reference to his Original English Works.” University of Texas Bulletin: Studies in English 9 (1929): 5-68.

—. “The To Comyng(e) Construction in Wyclif.” PMLA 45 (1930): 468-500.

Ives, Doris. “A Man of Religion.” Modern Language Review 27 (1932): 144-48.

Jacob, E.F. “Reynold Pecock, Bishop of Chichester.” British Academy Ralegh Lecture of 1951. Publications of the British Academy 37 (1951): 121-53.

—. The Fifteenth Century, 1399-1485. Oxford: Clarendon, 1961.

—. Henry Chichele. London: Thomas Nelson, 1967.

—. “The Canterbury Convocation of 1406.” Essays in Medieval History Presented to Bertie Wilkinson. Ed. T.A. Sandquist and M.R. Powicke. Toronto: Toronto Univ. Press, 1969. 345-53.

Jäger, Oskar. John Wycliffe, und seine Bedeutung für die Reformation. Halle, 1854. [For a contemporary review of this study, with 10 other publications, see “Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics,” British Quarterly Review 28 (1858), included below.]

James, Sarah. “A Previously Unnoticed Extract of Suso’s Horologium Sapientiae in English.” Notes And Queries 59 (257).1 (2012): 28-30. [The extract is found in Cambridge, St. John’s MS G.25. It is a version of ch. 6 of Seven Poyntes, on the nature of the Eucharist, which here does not appear as a dialogue. It occupies fols. 85r-93r, immediately following the Oon of Foure. It is followed by three blank leaves, after which appears the lollard sermon Vae Octuplex.]

—. “‘Langagis, whose reules ben not written’: Pecock and the Uses of the Vernacular.” In Vernacularity in England and Wales, c. 1300-1550. Ed. Elizabeth Salter and Helen Wicker. Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011. 101-117. [“I will argue that for Pecock, what is at stake is not simply the question of language itself; rather, language is a . . . shorthand for a whole array of . . . pressing issues, including lay education, access to texts, and the social and religious structures which determine the distribution of power and authority” (102).]

Jannuzzi, Lawrence R. “Adam Easton’s humanistic hierarchy: A study in fourteenth-century political theology.” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 2004. [According to the abstract, Jannuzzi argues “that the mendicant orders and John Wyclif were being viewed together as threats to human hierarchical authority, interrelated through a cluster of ideas centering on dominium, evangelical poverty and ecclesiastical disendowment as aspects of, rather than parallel to, episcopal and papal juridical rights, reflecting a growing underlying mistrust of the notion of human mediation of divine authority. This theme of hierarchy and mediation informed all of Easton’s thought, epitomized in his last work, a defense of the revelations of St. Birgitta of Sweden. In particular, Easton’s major book, Defensorium ecclesiastics potestatis (1378), is most profitably read not as an apology for ecclesiastical as opposed to secular ‘power,’ but as a sort of summa hierarchiae (in the fourteenth-century sense of the word “summa”), in which Easton strove to rescue the concept of hierarchy itself from the ecclesiological scandal of the friars and, ever more pressingly, from the associated dangers of Wyclif’s Augustinian/realist ‘immediatism.’ In the process, Easton sought to reconcile Aristotelian notions of natural government with Augustinian emphasis on God’s unmediated sovereignty over creation, all within a Dionysian hierarchical framework.”]

Janssen, V.F. “Die four sects und die sect of Christ bei Wiclif.” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 56 (1937): 354-360.

Janz, Denis R. “Late Medieval Theology.” Bagchi and Steinmetz 1-14.

Jeaunneau, Edouard. “Plato apud Bohemos.” Mediaeval Studies 41 (1979): 161-214.

Jeep, Arminio. Gerson, Wiclefus, Hussus inter Se et cum Reformatoribus Comparati. Gottingen, 1857. [This essay, and the essay with the same title by Winkelmann, below, are results of a competition sponsored by the Theological Faculty of Gottingen. Jeep (2 mb)]

Jeffrey, David Lyle. “Chaucer and Wyclif: Biblical Hermeneutic and Literary Theory in the xivth Century.” Chaucer and Scriptural Tradition. Ed. D.L. Jeffrey. Ottawa: Univ. of Ottawa Press, 1984. 109-42.

—. “John Wyclif and the Hermeneutics of Reader Response.” Interpretation 39.3 (July, 1985): 272-87.

—. “False Witness and the Just Use of Evidence in the Wycliffite ‘Pistel of Swete Susan.'” The Judgment of Susanna: Authority and Witness. Ed. Ellen Spolsky. Atlanta: Scholars, 1996. 57-71.

—. “Victimization and Legal Abuse: The Wycliffite Retelling of the Story of Susannah.” Retelling Tales: Essays in Honor of Russell Peck. Ed. T. Hahn and A. Lupack. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1997. 161-78.

Jenkins, Claude. “Cardinal Morton’s Register.” Tudor Studies Presented . . . to Albert Frederick Pollard. Ed. R.W. Seton-Watson. 1924. Rpt. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1969. 26-74.

Johnson, Ian. “Vernacular Valorizing: Functions and Fashionings of Literary Theory in Middle English Translation of Authority.” Beer 239-54.

—. “Vernacular Theology/Theological Vernacular: A Game of Two Halves?” Gillespie and Ghosh 73-88. [The essay begins by considering the limitations of the terms “vernacular theology” and proposing that a rearrangement of these terms to the “theological vernacular” may better account for the fluidity and performative nature of this discourse. Johnson then presents evidence of “complexity, latitude, possibility, discretion, spiritual ambition, and choice” in select fifteenth-century manuscripts with English translations of the Meditationes vitae Christi, in an effort to show that vernacular theology persisted after Arundel.]

Johnston, Alexandra. “The Plays of the Religious Guilds of York: The Creed Play and the Pater Noster Play.” Speculum 50.1 (1975): 55-90.

Jones, E.A. “The Compilation(s) of Two Late Medieval Devotional Manuscripts.” Barr and Hutchinson 79-97. [These are BL MS Royal 17 C. xviii and Bodleian MS Rawlinson C. 894. Jones describes the almost identical contents of these manuscripts, used for devotion and meditation, and then moves on to discuss the rationale for the relationships among them.]

Jones, Edmund D. “The Authenticity of Some Works Ascribed to Wycliffe.” Anglia 30 (1907): 261-8.

Jones, W.R. “Lollards and Images: The Defense of Religious Art in Later Medieval England.” Journal of the History of Ideas 34 (1973): 27-50.

Jürgen, Miethke. “A teoria política de João Wyclif.” Veritas: Revista de Filosofia 51.3 (Sept. 2006): 129-44. [“During the XIV century, the conflict between the pope and the emperor lost force. In the meanwhile, the new states took body and the ancient problems took on new clothes. That was the environment in which Wyclif lived. His political thought owns a religious source, and his major intention was to understand the church as a community of the redeemed. In such a condition the church is only known by God, and only in the final judgment men will know who belonged to the true church. Based on Giles of Rom, but reading him from a different point of view, he justifies property and power through the state of grace. In his critics to the church he was one of the antecessors of the reform.” In Portugese.]

Jurkowski, Maureen. “John Fynderne of Findern, Derbyshire: an exchequer official of the early fifteenth century, his circle and Lollard connections.” Ph.D. Diss. Keele Univ, 1998.

—. “Lancastrian Royal Service, Lollardy, and Forgery: The Career of Thomas Tykhill.” Crown, Government and People in the Fifteenth Century. Ed. Rowena E. Archer. New York: St. Martin’s, 1995. 33-52.

—. “New Light on John Purvey.” English Historical Review 110 (Nov. 1995): 1180-91.

—. “Lawyers and Lollardy in the Early Fifteenth Century.” Aston and Richmond 155-182.

—. “Heresy and Factionalism at Merton College in the Early Fifteenth Century.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 48 (Oct. 1997): 658-81.

—. “The Arrest of William Thorpe in Shrewsbury and the Anti-Lollard Statute of 1406.” Historical Research 75 (2002): 273-295.

—. “Lollardy in Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire: The Two Thomas Compworths.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 73-95.

—. “Lollard Book Producers in London in 1414.” Barr and Hutchinson 201-26. [“Using unpublished sources in The National Archives, Public Record Office and the archives of the city of London and its livery companies, this essay will reconstruct as far as possible the lives, careers, and networks of associations of [several Lollard book producers]. It will then briefly consider the specific localities from which they operated and see what conclusions can be drawn about Lollard book production in the capital” (202). She briefly mentions John Gryme, and then considers at length John Godspell, William Fisher, Thomas Lyttleton, and Richard Dalton.]

—. “Lollardy in Coventry and the Revolt of 1431.” Identity and Insurgency in the Late Middle Ages. Ed. Linda Clark. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2006. 145-64.

—. “Lollardy and Social Status in East Anglia.” Speculum 82.1 (Jan. 2007): 120-52. [“This article examines the origins, the socio-economics status, and the prevalence of heresy in the Lollard community of East Anglia, England during the Middle Ages, drawing upon historical administrative documents. The author also presents an overview of heresy in eastern England during the medieval period. The article concludes with the author discussing the ramifications of the presented research.”]

—. “The Career of Robert Herlaston, Lollard Preacher. Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 109-130.

—. “Lollard Networks.” Bose and Hornbeck 261-278. [Jurkowski asks whether Lollard networks extended nationally or just regionally, examining evidence regarding where Lollards preached, from whom they received support, and what professions they populated. She concludes that while we lack sufficient information to answer the question conclusively, Lollards felt that their networks extended beyond local communities.]

—. “La Noblesse anglaise de la fin du Moyen Age: Pour ou contre la défense de l’orthodoxie religieuse?” Le Salut par les armes. Noblesse et defense de l’orthodoxie (XIIIe-XVIIe siècles). Ed. Franck Mercier, Ariane Boltanski, and Jean-Phillippe Genet. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2011. 227-38.

—. “Who Was Walter Brut?” English Historical Review 127 (2012): 285-302. [Going beyond study of Walter Brut’s trial records, Jurkowski mines other documentary evidence for information regarding Brut’s Welsh heritage and eventual involvement in Welsh rebellion, his potential education at a cathedral school and at Oxford, and his role as a landowner in Hereford, offering a more diverse portrait of this famous early Lollard.]

—. “Henry V’s Suppression of the Oldcastle Revolt.” Henry V: New Interpretations. Ed. Gwilym Dodd. York: York Medieval Press, 2013. 103-129. [Jurkowski reevaluates Henry V’s reputation as a ruler who effectively administered justice in light of his handling of the 1414 rebellion lead by the Lollard-sympathizer John Oldcastle. Focusing on the diverse fates of rebels and the strategies employed to pursue the elusive Oldcastle, she points to frequent disregard for common law and suggests that the ability to purchase pardon significantly affected an accused rebel or heretic’s fate.]

Justice, Steven. “Inquisition, Speech, and Writing: A Case from Late Medieval Norwich.” Representations 48 (1994): 1-29; rpt. in Copeland 289-322.

—. Writing and Rebellion: England in 1381. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1994.

—. “Lollardy.” Wallace 662-689.

Kalidova, Robert. “Joannus Wyclifs Metaphysik des extremen Realismus und ihre Bedeutung im Endstadium der mittelalterlichen Philosophie.” Die Metaphysik im Mittelalter, ed. Paul Wilpert. Miscellanea Medievalia, vol. 2. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1963. 717-23.

—. Revolution und Ideologie: Der Hussitismus. Trans. H. Thorwart and M. Glettler. Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 1976.

Kaluza, Zenon. “Late Medieval Philosophy, 1350-1500.” Routledge History of Philosophy, Vol. III: Late Medieval Philosophy. Ed. John Marenbon. New York: Routledge, 1998. 426-451.

—. “La notion de matière et son evolution dans la doctrine wyclifienne.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 113-52.

Kamerick, Kathleen. Popular Piety and Art in the Later Middle Ages: Image Worship and Idolatry in England, 1350-1550. London: Palgrave, 2002. [Kamerick works with a wide range of later medieval texts, Lollard and orthodox, Latin and vernacular, describing debates over the status of images. According to the press release, “Medieval churchmen typically defended religious art as ‘books’ to teach the unlettered laity their faith, but in late medieval England, Lollard accusations of idolatry stimulated renewed debate over image worship. This book places this dispute within the context of the religious beliefs and devotional practices of lay people, showing how they used and responded to holy images in their parish churches, at shrines, and in prayer books. Far more than substitutes for texts, holy images presented a junction of the material and spiritual, offering an increasingly literate laity access to the supernatural through the visual power of ‘beholding.'”]

Kaminsky, Howard. “Wyclifism as Ideology of Revolution.” Church History 32 (1963): 57-74.

—. A History of the Hussite Revolution. Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1967. Rpt. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2004.

Kamowski, William. “Chaucer and Wyclif: God’s Miracles Against the Clergy’s Magic.” The Chaucer Review 37.1 (2002): 5-25. [“This essay examines Chaucer’s and Wyclif’s shared reflections upon the alleged miracles and other spiritual empowerments of the Church in the fourteenth century [ . . . ]. My primary purpose is to lend force to arguments for Wyclif’s influence upon Chaucer. But I will also suggest how an understanding of Wycliffite affinities in Chaucer can lead us to a better appreciation of the poet’s aesthetic transformation of the polemical, anti-aesthetic rhetoric associated with Wycliffite discourse–and with the discourse of dissent more generally” (6-7).]

Kaňák, M. John Viklef. Zivot a dílo anglického Husove predchudce. Prague: Blahoslav, 1970. Trans. Der Ketzer von Oxvord. Leben un Wirkungen John Wiklefs. [John Wyclif: The Life and Work of the English Precursor of Hus.] Prague: Blahoslav, 1973.

Karáth, Tamás. “Vernacular Authority and the Rhetoric of Sciences in Pecock’s The Folewer to the Donet and in The Court of Sapience.” Gillespie and Ghosh 285-303. [With the aim to explore continuities in a genre before and after Arundel’s Constitutions, Karáth analyzes how Pecock and an anonymous author draw on previous discourses pertaining to the classifications of the sciences and highlights how each author describes the limitations or dangers of composing such works in English.]

Keen, Maurice. England in the Later Middle Ages: A Political History. London: Methuen, 1973.

—. “Wyclif, the Bible, and Transubstantiation.” Kenny 1-17.

—. “The Influence of Wyclif.” Kenny 127-145.

Kennedy, Leonard A. The Philosophy of Robert Holcot: A Fourteenth Century Sceptic. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1993.

Kelemen, Erick. “Drama in Sermons: Quotation, Performativity, and Conversion in a Middle English Sermon and the Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge.” ELH 69 (2002): 1-19. [The Tretise “is itself a theory of theatre that quotes and disputes another theory of the theater–making it an antagonistic dialogue of theories” (1). Keleman starts with this internal conflict in the Tretise, noting that the aim of both sermon and drama is conversion. Using a sermon conversion narrative of the prodigal son, he shows that “conversion foregrounds a fundamental instability in the subject, which problematizes any simple understanding of the function of mimesis in a didactic medium, sermon, or drama” (2).]

Kellogg, A.L., and Ernest W. Talbert, “The Wycliffite Pater Noster and Ten Commandments, with Special Reference to English Mss. 85 and 90 in the John Rylands Library.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 42 (1960): 345-377.

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. “Lollard Inquisitions: Due and Undue Process.” The Devil, Heresy, and Witchcraft in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of J.B. Russell. Ed. Alberto Ferreiro. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1998. 279-303.

—. “Trial Procedures against Wyclif and Wycliffites in England and at the Trial of Constance.” The Huntington Library Quarterly 61.1 (1998): 1-28.

—. “Inquisition, Public Fame and Confession: General Rules and English Practice,” Flannery and Walker 8-29.

Kemp, Anthony. The Estrangment of the Past: A Study in the Origins of Modern Historical Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1991.

Kendall, Ritchie D. The Drama of Dissent: The Radical Poetics of Nonconformity, 1380-1590. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Kennedy, Kathleen E. The Courtly and Commercial Art of the Wycliffite Bible. Turnhout: Brepols, 2014. [From the publisher: “The Courtly and Commercial Art of the Wycliffite Bible examines the illuminations of the first complete translation of the Bible into English and situates this art within networks of artists catering to bourgeois and noble clientele in both London and the provinces from the late fourteenth century into the early sixteenth century.]

—. “Reintroducing the English Books of Hours or ‘English Primers,’” Speculum 89.3 (2014), 693-723. [This article discusses a group of 17 English Books of Hours, eight of which have psalms in the Later Version translation of the Wycliffite Bible and another eight of which Kennedy argues adapt the Earlier Version translation. The article considers the English texts, their decoration, and their potential audience, challenging common notions about the content and readership of Middle English scripture.]

Kenny, Anthony. Wyclif. Past Masters Series. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1985.

—. “The Realism of the de Universalibus.” Kenny 17-30.

—. “Wyclif: A Master Mind.” Proceedings of the British Academy 72 (1986): 91-113. Rpt. in The Heritage of Wisdom. Ed. A. Kenny. Oxford: Blackwell, 1987. 68-92.

—. “Realism and Determinism in the Early Wyclif.” Hudson and Wilks 165-178.

—. “The Accursed Memory: The Counter-Reformation Reputation of John Wyclif.” Kenny 147-68.

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. “Prophecy and Suspicion: Closet Radicalism, Reformist Politics, and the Vogue for Hildegardiana in Ricardian England.” Speculum 75 (2000): 318-341.

—. “‘Eciam lollardi: Some Further Thoughts on Fiona Somerset’s “‘Eciam mulier’: Women in Lollardy and the Problem of Sources.” Voices In Dialogue: Reading Women In The Middle Ages. Ed. Linda Olson and Katherine Kerby-Fulton. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame Press, 2005. 261-78. [A response to Somerset’s essay, below. Kerby-Fulton’s response seeks “to open up a wide angle lens onto” the Brut trial records, observing that the ideational concerns exhibited about women in the records is in fact wider than Lollardy alone as the disputations “show English scholars in contact with new continental ideas, and wrestling . . . with a new threat . . . that took them far beyond the concerns of even Lollardy” (263). Much of Kerby-Fulton’s response discusses these older and wider discussions about women and learning.]

—. Books under Suspicion: Censorship and Tolerance of Revelatory Writing in Late Medieval England. Notre Dame, 2006. [According to its description, this book “examines the censorship issues that propelled the major writers of the period toward their massive use of visionary genres. [It] suggests that writers and translators as different as Chaucer, Langland, Julian of Norwich, “M.N.,” and Margery Kempe positioned their work to take advantage of the tacit toleration that both religious and secular authorities extended to revelatory theology. The book examines controversial ideas as diverse as the early experimental humanism of Chaucer, censured beatific vision theology and the breakdown of Langland’s A Text, the English reception of M.N.’s translation of Marguerite Porete’s condemned book, Julian’s authorial suppression of her gender, and the impact of suspect Continental women’s activism on Kempe. Kerby-Fulton also narrates success stories of intellectual freedom, tracing evidence of ecclesiastical tolerance of revelation, the impossibility of official censorship in a manuscript culture, and the powerful, protected reading circles for radical apocalypticism and mysticism, such as those of the Austins and the Carthusians. Until now, Wycliffite works have been seen as the only significant unorthodox or radical body of writings in late medieval England. Books under Suspicion is the first comprehensive study of banned non-Wycliffite materials in Insular writing during the period of the Avignon and Great Schism papacies.”]

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn, and Denise Depres. Iconography and the Professional Reader: The Politics of Book Production in the Douce Piers Plowman. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1998.

Kightly, Charles. “Lollard Knights (act. c.1380–c.1414).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Sept. 2004; online edn, Jan. 2008.

King, John N. English Reformation Literature. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1982.

Klassen, John. The Nobility and the Making of the Hussite Revolution. Boulder: East European Quarterly, 1978.

—. “Hus, the Hussites, and Bohemia.” New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 7: c. 1415-c.1500. Ed. Christopher Allemand. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998. 367-91.

Knapp, Ethan. The Bureaucratic Muse: Thomas Hoccleve and the Literature of Late Medieval England. University Park: Penn State Univ. Press, 2001. [Knapp notes that recent studies of Lollardy and the Lancastrians have occasioned a re-evaluation of Hoccleve’s work; to this he “would add a third crucial term: bureaucracy” (2). The book takes part in and further encourages much of the recent re-evaluation of Hoccleve–and fifteenth-century poetry–and of course much of interest here stretches far beyond Lollardy per se. Knapp discusses Lollardy specifically in his fifth chapter, entitled “Hoccleve and Heresy: Image, Memory, and the Vanishing Mediator,” in which he discusses the religious poetry, including the “Remonstrance to Sir John Oldcastle.” Knapp uses this poem to begin his argument for a nuanced view of Hoccleve’s orthodoxy, showing how his anti-Lollardy is also combined with “a sophisticated critique of the ability of the image to instantiate reality, a critique that asserts the essential unreliability of the ocular tropes so central to orthodox polemic” (134).]

Knapp, Peggy. “Wyclif as Bible Translator: The Texts for the English Sermons.” Speculum 46 (1971): 713-20.

—. “John Wyclif and the Horned Patriarchs.” American Notes and Queries 14 (1976): 66-67.

—. The Style of John Wyclif’s English Sermons. The Hague: Mouton, 1977.

—. Chaucer and the Social Contest. New York: Routledge, 1990.

—. “The Words of the Parson’s ‘Vertuous Sentence.'” Closure in the Canterbury Tales: The Role of the Parson’s Tale. Ed. David Raybin and Linda Tarte Holley. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, 2000. 95-113. [While Lollardy circulates within several essays in this volume, it is most central to Knapp’s paper. Her paper is similar in approach to her recent Time-Bound Words, building upon papers such as Anne Hudson’s “Is There a Lollard Vocabulary?” and theoretical approaches such as Raymond William’s Keywords. She excavates the resonances of several key words in the Parson’s vocabulary, including “fable,” “glose,” “lewed,” “estat,” and “fre.”]

—. Time-Bound Words: Semantic and Social Economies from Chaucer’s England to Shakespeare’s. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000.

Knoll, Paul W. “‘The Worst Heretic’: Andrzej Gałka of Dobczyn in the Academic and Ecclesiastical Context of Mid-15th Century Kraków and Poland.” Polish Review 54.1 (2009): 3-29. [“The article discusses Andrzej Gałka, a leading faculty member at the University of Kraków in Poland and a canon of St. Florian’s church in Kleparz. The author explains that Gałka was a respected scholar until he became involved with religious heresy. A history of the University of Kraków and biographical information on Gałka are included. The author talks about an ecclesiastical controversy Gałka was involved in concerning the Hussite Christian movement. Subjects of the article also include Gałka’s study of the teachings of John Wyclif and letters written by Gałka.”]

Knowles, David. The Religious Orders in England. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1961.

—. “The Censured Opinions of Uthred of Boldon.” The Historian and Character and Other Essays. Ed. D. Knowles. Cambridge: Univ. of Cambridge Press, 1963. 129-70.

Kolesnyk, Alexander. “Hussens Eucharistiebegriff.” Seibt, et al. 193-202.

Kolve, V.A. The Play Called Corpus Christi. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1966.

Komowski, William. “Chaucer and Wyclif: God’s Miracles Against the Clergy’s Magic.” Chaucer Review 37.1 (2002): 5-25.

Krapp, J.P. The Rise of English Literary Prose. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1916. [The second chapter is on “Wiclif.” Note that this book is predicated upon the outdated assumption that Wyclif wrote all of the texts preserved in Matthew’s EETS volume and Arnold’s three-volume edition of English Wycliffite texts, which includes the English sermons. Virtually all scholars today believe that no English text remains which can be ascribed to Wyclif himself. Krapp (8.4 mb)]

Kras, Paweł. “Hussitism and the Polish Nobility.” Aston and Richmond 183-198.

Kretzmann, Norman. “Continua, Indivisibles, and Change in Wyclif’s Logic of Scripture.” Kenny 31-65.

Krey, Philip. “Many Readers but Few Followers: The Fate of Nicholas of Lyra’s ‘Apocalypse Commentary’ in the Hands of his Late Medieval Admirers.” Church History 64 (June 1995): 185-97. [Krey spends several pages on Wyclif. Acccording to Krey, “Gustav Benrath has shown that John Wyclif had both Lyra’s Apocalypse Commentary and [Peter] Auriol’s before him as he prepared his commentary on the Apocalypse in 1371. The commentary probably expresses lectures given before he earned his doctorate in theology. Benrath has argued that Wyclif followed Lyra’s commentary closely, frequently borrowing text from him as he had done from Auriol. On closer reading, however, it becomes clear that Wyclif also liked what Peter had down and frequently preferred his readings to those of Nicholas. He modified his later prescription for a good biblical commentary by using Lyra as a ‘mould’ into which he could pur Auriol’s Compendium” (195).]

Kristeller, Paul Oskar. “The Thomist Tradition.” Medieval Aspects of Renaissance Learning. Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1974.

Krofta, Kamil. “John Hus.” Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 8. Ed. C.W. Previté and Z.N. Brooke. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1936. 45-64.

Krug, Rebecca. Reading Families: Women’s Literate Practice in Late Medieval England. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2002. [The body of Krug’s study includes four chapters. Two study indivdual women, Margaret Paston, Margaret Beaufort; and two study religious communities: chapter three is entitled “Children of God: Lollard Women at Norwich,” and chapter four is a study of Bridgettine nuns at Syon Abbey. Chapter three examines women in Norwich conventicles in about 1430: “Joan White, wife of the famous itinerant Lollard preacher William White; Hawisia Moon, wife of Thomas Moon; . . . and Margery Baxter, a disciple of Joan White’s husband” (117-118). In this chapter she argues that “Lollard women viewed themselves as ‘children of God’ and claimed literate authority through divine kinship, asserting that God was their Father and the scriptures (rather than the Church) their mother. This chapter demonstrates that the family-based model of literacy extended beyond circumstances of literate education and textual transmission to imaginative structures: Lollard women resisted clerical control of their engagement with the scriptures, and they read and wrote as mothers or daughters or sisters within their individual families” (15).

Krummel, Leopold. “Die Vorreformatoren Wycliffe und Hus und ihr Verhältnis zu den scholastischen Systemen des Realismus und Nominalismus.” Theologische Studien und Kritiken 44 (1871): 297-317.

Kuhl, E. P. “Chaucer and the Church.” Modern Language Notes 40.6 (1925): 321-38.

Kuczynski, Michael. Prophetic Song: The Psalms as Moral Discourse in Late Medieval England. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

—. “Rolle among the Reformers: Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy in Wycliffite Copies of Richard Rolle’s Psalter.” Mysticism and Spirituality in Medieval England. Ed. W. F. Pollard and R. Boenig. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1997. 177-202.

—. “The Earliest English Wyclif Portraits?: Political Caricatures in Bodleian Library, Oxford, MS Laud Misc. 286.” Journal of the Early Book Society 5 (2002): 121-139. [Laud Misc. 286 is a copy of Rolle’s English Commentary on the Psalter, with some interpolations. Kuczynski describes how three marginal portraits seem in various ways to mock Wyclif. He describes interpolations to Psalms 1-17 as conservative and polemical (not Lollard). Therefore, “this copy of Rolle’s commentary . . . could have been deliberately passed off by a conservative copyist as Rolle’s own work in order to counter the supposedly pernicious effects of Lollard copies” (128).]

—. “An Important Lollard Psalter in Trinity College Library.” Studies 99 (2010): 181-187. [Describing features of Dublin, Trinity College MS 70, Kuczynksi argues why the manuscript, with its psalter, glosses, and works of religious instruction, may have suited the interests of its seventeenth-century Irish owner as well as fifteenth-century Lollards.]

—. “An Unpublished Lollard Psalms Catena in Huntington Library MS HM 501.” Journal of the Early Book Society 13 (2010): 95-138.
[The essay discusses Lollard interest in the Psalter, the medieval genre known as the catena, and the particular thematic emphases of this abbreviated Psalter that rearranges excerpts from 23 Psalms. Kuczynski includes a critical edition of the Lollard catena that highlights “the rhetorical structures and argumentative patterns implicit in the text.”]

Kurze, D. “Die festlädischen Lollarden: zur Geschichte der religiösen Bewegungen im ausgehenden Mittelalter.” Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 47 (1965): 48-76.

Kybal, V. “Étude sur les origines du mouvement Hussite in Bohemia. Matthias de Ianov.” Revue Historique 103 (1910): 1-31.

Lahey, Stephen. “Wyclif and Toleration.” Difference and Dissent. Ed. Carey Nederman and John Laurson. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996. 39-66.

—. “Wyclif on Rights.” Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (Jan. 1997): 1-21.

—. “Wyclif and Lollardy.” The Medieval Theologians: An Introduction to the Theology of the Medieval Period. Ed. Gillian R. Evans. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001. 334-54.

—. Philosophy and Politics in the Thought of John Wyclif. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. [John Wyclif was the fourteenth-century English thinker responsible for the first English Bible, and for the Lollard movement which was persecuted widely for its attempts to reform the church through empowerment of the laity. Wyclif had also been an Oxford philosopher, and was in the service of John of Gaunt, the powerful duke of Lancaster. In several of Wyclif’s formal, Latin works he proposed that the king ought to take control of all church property and power in the kingdom – a vision close to what Henry VIII was to realize 150 years later. This book argues that Wyclif’s political program was based on a coherent philosophical vision ultimately consistent with his other reformative ideas, identifying for the first time a consistency between his realist metaphysics and his political and ecclesiological theory. Specifically, the book argues that Wyclif’s metaphysics serves as intellectual foundation for his political thought. Lahey examines the concept of dominium both as divine universal by causality and as instantiated in prelapsarian (natural) and postlapsarian (civil) forms, illustrating the close ties between Tractatus de Universalibus, De Civili Dominio and De Dominio Divino.]

—. “Reginald Pecock on the Authority of Reason, Scripture, and Tradition.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 56.2 (April, 2005): 235-60. [According to Lahey, “Pecock is remembered for vernacular works formulated to combat Lollardy using reason, not the force of ecclesiastical authority. He argued that Scriptures teachings are true not because they are scripture, but becauase they are evident to unassisted reason. While scholars have explored his arguments in ecclesiastical and historical context, little analysis exists of the scholastic background to Pecock’s conception of the relation of reason to faith. This article suggests that Pecock’s arguments are grounded in the thought of Aquinas and Scotus, and illustrates how his understanding of reason’s capabilities directs his conception of the authority of Scripture and church tradition.”]

—. “Wyclif’s Trinitarian and Christological Theology.” Levy 127-198.

—. John Wyclif. Great Medieval Thinkers. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2008. [This work draws on recent scholarship situating Wyclif in his fourteenth-century milieu to present a survey of his thought and writings as a coherent theological position arising from Oxford’s ‘Golden Age’ of theology. Lahey argues that many of Wyclif’s best known critiques of the fourteenth-century Church arise from his philosophical commitment to an Augustinian realism evocative of the thought of Robert Grosseteste and Anselm of Canterbury. This realism is comprehensible in terms of Wyclif’s sustained focus on semantics and the properties of terms and propositions, a ‘linguistic turn’ characterizing post-Ockham philosophical theology. Arising from this propositional realism is a strong emphasis on the place of Scripture in both formal and applied theology, which was the starting point for many of Wyclif’s quarrels with the ecclesiastical status quo in late fourteenth-century England. An appendix includes a translation of Wyclif’s Confessio.]

—. “Late Medieval Eucharistic Theology.” Levy, Macy, and Van Ausdall 499-540.

—. “Richard FitzRalph and John Wyclif: Untangling Armachanus from the Wycliffites.” Richard FitzRalph: His Life, Times and Thought. Ed. Michael W. Dunne and Simon Nolan. 204-213. [Lahey aims to show that FitzRalph’s and Wyclif’s antifraternalism was a point of contrast for the two, not something they held in common. He grounds this argument in each theologian’s views on the authority of scripture and then analyzes their arguments against the friars, describing FitzRalph as opposed to particular practices and Wyclif as fundamentally antisectarian. Lahey also emphasizes, however, how much Wyclif had in common with friars.]

Lambert, Malcolm. Medieval Heresy. 2nd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1992.

Lambertini, Roberto. “La concordia tra Niccolò III e Giovanni XXII in Fitz Ralph e Wyclif. Note sul alcune interpretazioni della povertà francescana.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 3-22.

Landi, Aldo. “John Wyclif nella storia.” John Wyclif 15-44.

Lares, Micheline. “Les traductions bibliquies: l’exemple de la Grande Bretagne.” Riche and Lobrichon 123-40.

Larsen, Andrew E. “The Oxford ‘School of Heretics’: the Unexamined Case of Friar John.” Vivarium 37.2 (1999): 168-77.

—. “Are All Lollards Lollards?” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 59-72.

—. “John Wyclif, c. 1331-1384.” Levy 1-65.

Laun, Justus F. “Thomas Bradwardina, der Schüler Augustins und Lehrer Wiclifs.” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 47 (1928): 333-56.

—. “Recherches sur Thomas de Bradwardin, précursor de Wyclif.” Revue d’Histoire te de philosophie religieuses 9 (1929): 217-33.

Lavinsky, David W. “After Wyclif: Lollard Biblical Scholarship and the English Vernacular, C.1380-C. 1450.” Ph.D. Diss., Univ. of Michigan, 2009. [From the abstract: “This dissertation investigates the changing meanings of biblical writing and scriptural truth in the work of John Wyclif and his successors, English heretics known as the Lollards. . . . I demonstrate . . . that Wyclif’s scriptural agenda fostered deeply ambivalent theorizations of the Bible’s material and historical status at precisely the moment when Lollards were most invested in constructing a canon of vernacular religious writing. This becomes apparent when Wyclif’s Latin theological works are juxtaposed with the English translations and commentaries of Lollardy’s adherents, and when both archives are placed in dialogue with a broad range of hermeneutic theory.”]

—. “‘Knowynge Cristes Speche’: Gender and Interpretive Authority in the Wycliffite Sermon Cycle.” Journal Of Medieval Religious Cultures 38.1 (2012): 60-83. [From the abstract: “[T]his article argues that certain Wycliffite biblical commentaries—primarily the long English sermon cycle—address and authorize women in various ways. Prompted by a need to model its own exegetical practices, the sermon cycle invokes women as an internal audience invested with the hermeneutic authority to point readers toward the proper register of Christ’s speech and thus to the meaning of enigmatic gospel texts. This mode, it is finally argued, makes sense in relation to Wyclif’s own hermeneutic theorizations in the De Veritate Sacrae Scripturae.”]

—. The School of Heretics: Academic Condemnation at the University of Oxford, 1277-1411. Leiden: Brill, 2011. [“This . . . is the first book-length study of academic condemnations at Oxford. It explores every known case in detail, including several never examined before, and then considers the practice of condemnation as a whole. As such, it provides a context to see John Wyclif and the Oxford Lollards not as unique figures, but as targets of a practice a century old by 1377. It argues that condemnation did not happen purely for reasons of theological purity, but reflected social and institutional pressures within the university.”]

Lawton, David. “Lollardy and the Piers Plowman Tradition.” Modern Language Review 76 (1981): 780-93.

—. Faith, Text, and History: The Bible in English. Charlottesville: Univ. of Virginia Press, 1990.

—. “Voice, Authority, and Blasphemy in the Book of Margery Kempe.” Margery Kempe: A Book of Essays. Ed. Sandra J. McEntire. New York: Garland, 1992. 93-115.

—. “Englishing the Bible, 1066-1549.” Wallace 454-482.

—. “Voice after Arundel.” Gillespie and Ghosh 133-151. [In this essay, Lawton asks “what are the private consequences of major public change?” and argues that studying voice can reveal nuanced responses to phenomena like Arundel’s Constitutions. He draws attention to how authors play with Boethian, Psalmic, and Pauline voices in early fifteenth-century literature.]

Le Bas, Charles Webb. The Life of Wiclif. London, 1832. [An early biography based mostly on Vaughan’s 1831 biography (for which see below). For a contemporary review, see “Wiclif and his Works,” included below. (6.5 mb)]

“Le Bas’s Life of Wiclif.” The British Critic, Quarterly Theological Review, and Ecclesiastical Record 11 (Apr. 1832): 257-87. [A contemporary review of Le Bas’s biography. (2 mb}]

Lechler, Gotthard Victor. Zeitschrift für die Historische Theologie 1853 vol. 3: 416-83, vol. 4: 491-72; 1854 vol. 2: 467-266. [For a contemporary review of this study, with 10 other publications, see “Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics,” British Quarterly Review 28 (1858), included below. pts. 1 and 2, 1853 (4.3 mb); pt. 3, 1854 (2.9 mb)]

—. Wyclif, als Vorläufer der Reformation. Antrittsvorlesung gehalten zu Leipzig den 9 Juli 1858. Leipzig: Verlag von Carl Fr. Fleischer, 1858. [For a contemporary review of this lecture, with 10 other publications, see “Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics,” British Quarterly Review 28 (1858), included below. (>1 mb)]

—. Johann von Wiclif und die Vorgeschichte der Reformation. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1873. English trans. by Peter Lorimer as John Wycliffe and His English Precursors. 2 vols. London: Religious Tract Society, 1884. [With Vaughan’s biographies (included below), this is one of the seminal nineteenth-century studies of Wyclif, frequently used by the more derivative quincentary flock of biographies. For contemporary reviews see Creighton, included above, and “Wiclif and his Works,” included below. (12.5 mb and 11.7 mb)]

Leff, Gordon. Bradwardine and the Pelagians. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1957. 32.

—. Richard Fitzralph: Commentator on the Sentences. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 1963.

—. “John Wyclif: The Path to Dissent.” Proceedings of the British Academy 52 (1966): 141-80.

—. “The Apostolic Ideal in Later Medieval Ecclesiology.” Journal of Theological Studies n.s. 18 (1967): 71-82.

—. Heresy in the Later Middle Ages: The Relation of Heterodoxy to Dissent, c. 1250-c. 1450. 2 vols. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 1967.

—. “Wyclif and Hus: A Doctrinal Comparison.” Bulletin of the John Ryland’s Library 50 (1967): 387-410; revised rpt. in Kenny 105-25.

—. “Wyclif and the Augustinian Tradition, with Special Reference to His De Trinitate.” Medievalia et Humanistica n.s. 1 (1970): 29-39.

—. The Dissolution of the Medieval Outlook. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.

—. “Ockham and Wyclif on the Eucharist.” Reading Medieval Studies 2 (1976): 1-13.

—. “John Wyclif as a Religious Reformer.” Annual Report of the Friends of Lambeth Palace Library (1984): 21-29.

—. “John Wyclif’s Religious Doctrines.” Churchman 98.4 (1984): 319-28.

—. “The Place of Metaphysics in Wyclif’s Theology.” Hudson and Wilks 217-232.

—. “John Wyclif.” Medieval Life 6 (1997): 19-25.

Lepine, David. “‘Let Them Praise Him in Church’: Orthodox Reform at Salisbury Cathedral in the First Half of the Fifteenth-Century.” Gillespie and Ghosh 167-185. [Lepine describes reform efforts at Salisbury Cathedral in the late fourteenth century and connects those developments to national reform efforts in the fifteenth century. Changes in personnel lead to more emphasis on learning and preaching, with figures like Ullerston and Chichele becoming closely connected to the cathedral in the fifteenth century. Lepine describes the promotion of the Sarum Use as an effort to counter heresy and cites Lollard criticisms of it.]

Lepow, Lauren. Enacting the Sacrament: Counter-Lollardy in the Towneley Cycle. Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh-Dickinson Univ. Press, 1991.

Lerner, Robert. Heresy of the Free Spirit in the Later Middle Ages. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1991.

Lerner, Robert. “Le communautes heretiques.” Riche and Lobrichon 597-614.

Levenson, Jill L. “Shakespeare’s Falstaff: ‘The cause that wit is in other men.'” University of Toronto Quarterly 74.2 (Spring, 2005): 722-29. [The paper traces Shakespeare’s models for Falstaff, including Sir John Oldcastle, the martyred Lollard rebel leader.]

Levy, Ian Christopher. “John Wyclif and Augustinian Realism.” Augustiniana 48 (1998): 87-106.

—. “Christus Qui Mentiri Non Potest: John Wyclif’s Rejection of Transubstantiation.” Recherches de Theologie et Philosophie Medievales (1999): 316-334.

—. “Was John Wyclif’s Theology of the Eucharist Donatistic?” Scottish Journal of Theology 53 (2000): 137-153. [According to the absract, “This study focuses on whether or not Wyclif’s eucharistic theology had in fact lapsed into this heresy. For if Wyclif was guilty of Donatism it is certainly no small matter. Donatism violates one of the most fundamental tenets of Catholic Christianity, viz. that the validity of the sacraments is not dependent upon the personal sanctity of the human beings who administer them. Medieval canon law dealt at some length with the issue of sacramental administration, upholding the Augustinian position that the determining factor in the proper administration of the sacraments is not the merit of the celebrant, but rather the power of God operating through him. Indeed, such a principle would have to be maintained if the foundation of the Church’s sacramental system, and the ecclesiastical structure as a whole, was to be preserved from the prospect of disintegration.”]

—. “Useful Foils: Lessons Learned from Jews in John Wyclif’s Call for Church Reform.” Medieval Encounters 7 (July 2001): 125-145. [According to Levy, “Wyclif examined the actions and plight of the Jews as recorded in the Old and New Testament in an effort to point out the abuses of the modern Church. Rather than hurl invective at the Jews of his own day as some other medieval writers did, Wyclif equates the sins of modern Christian prelates with biblical Jews, who serve as a model of unfaithfulness now far exceeded by his fellow churchmen.”]

—. “Defining the Responsibility of the Late Medieval Theologian: The Debate Between John Kynyngham and John Wyclif.” Carmelus 49 (2002): 5-29. [Levy begins this article by addressing the general consensus on the debate between Kynyngham and Wyclif: that it concerns Wyclif’s metaphysical realism and the resultant “awkward form of biblical exegesis” (6). According to Levy, “this is not primarily a study of the different metaphysical conclusions of these two theologians, but instead an examination of their approaches to Biblical authorship and just what constitutes the literal sense. Wyclif accuses Kynyngham of capitulating to the rules of the grammarians and thus abandoning Scripture’s unique modus loquendi. Kynyngham for his part claims that Wyclif’s strict adherence to scriptural discourse amounts to forfeiting his responsibility as a theologian; one must be willing to interpret the biblical text for the good of the Church.” He then argues that the debate should also be understood as concerning the role and responsibilities of the theologian, especially in his connection to the community. These roles and responsibilities are, of course, very much located in biblical exegesis, and Levy finds Kynyngham to be far more interested in seeing theology as a public task, whereas Wyclif dangerously appeals to the Divine Author.]

—. “The Fight for the Sacred Sense in Late Medieval England.” Anglican Theological Review 85 (2003): 165-76. [This is a review-article of Kantik Ghosh’s The Wycliffite Heresy, in which Levy reviews much recent scholarship on Lollardy, and offer some of his own reflections, one of which responds to Ghosh’s presentation of Wyclif’s approach to Scripture. It is Levy’s view that Scripture was at root a christological matter for Wyclif, who equates Scripture with Christ himself. Christ the Eternal Wisdom of God leads the reader to an understanding of Himself so embodied in Scripture. Levy agrees with Ghosh that there a certain circularity to Wycliffite exegesis, but one, he thinks, that places a Person, Christ, at the center, rather than simply a text, however shorn of textuality.]

—. “John Wyclif’s Neoplatonic View of Scripture in its Christological Context.” Medieval Philosophy and Theology 11 (2003): 227-40. [According to the abstract, “Wyclif’s threefold system of universals bearis a striking similarity to that outlined by the sixth-century Neoplatonist Simplicius, and, in turn, corresponds markedly to Wyclif’s division of Scripture into five and three levels. . . . [B]ecause Wyclif equates Scripture with Christ the Word, in whome all the divine ideas dwell, such an equation results in a very dynamic view of Scripture. For rather than subsisting as a static eternal book, Scripture, in its different levels, functions as a vital extrapolation of Christ the Word. In this article, I have three basic objectives. The first is to show the similarity between Wyclif’ stheory of universals and the Neoplatonic model presented by Simplicius. Secondly, I plan to examine the place of Christ the Word within that system. Having done these things, the stage is set for demonstrating the connection between Wyclif’s system of universals and his understanding of Scripture’s own nature and composition.”]

—. John Wyclif: Scriptural Logic, Real Presence, and the Parameters of Orthodoxy. Milwuakee: Marquette University Press, 2003. [This study offers an appraisal of John Wyclif’s theology within the context of some larger medieval developments of scholasticism, none of which can be isolated from one another. Levy focuses upon Wyclif’s eucharistic theology and its intersection with his understanding of Scripture. In so doing, Levy identifies two central points about Wyclif: his sense of commitment to the larger continuum of Catholic tradition, and his placement of Christ, the Incarnate Word, at the heart of that tradition. Scripture, for Wyclif, is ultimately identified with the Eternal Word, and proper devotion to the Eucharist is reverence for the Word Made Flesh who instituted this sacrament. At the center of Wyclif’s theology there is always a Living Person.]

—. “Texts for a Poor Church: John Wyclif and the Decretals.” Essays in Medieval Studies 20.1 (Feb. 2004): 94-107. [This article focuses on papal decretals and English religious reformer John Wyclif’s views on it. Wyclif did not summarily dismiss the contents of those thirteenth- and fourteenth-century collections of papal letters which began with Gregory IX’s 1234 Liber Extra. In fact, he thought certain texts were quite sound, and he conceded that the pope does have the right to pass laws for the good of the Church, providing that such statutes are in keeping with Holy Scripture. The papal decretal “Exiit qui seminat” was designed to protect the mendicant life of the Franciscan Order, extolling that life as the highest expression of Christian perfection. It was not intended to function as a blueprint for the entire clergy.]

—. “Grace and Freedom in the Soteriology of John Wyclif.” Traditio 60 (2005): 279-337. According to Levy, “The popular portrayal of John Wyclif (d. 1384) is that of the inflexible reformer whose views of the Church were driven by a strict determinism which divided humanity into two eternally fixed categories of the predestined and the damned. In point of fact, however, Wyclif’s understanding of salvation is quite nuanced and well worth careful study.” The purpose of Levy’s essay, in which he considers earlier work by Lechler, Robson, and Kenny, “is to offer a full appraisal of Wyclif’s soteriology in its many facets. This means that we will first discuss the related questions of divine will and human freedom, and their impact upon his soteriology. Then we will examine his views on sin, grace, merit, justification, faith, and predestination, all within the larger medieval context. What we should find is that Wyclif’s soteriology makes a good deal of room for human free will, albeit in cooperation with divine grace. Furthermore, we will see that Wyclif most often presents a God who is at once just and merciful, extending grace and the possibility of salvation to all” (279-80).

—. “John Wyclif: Christian Patience in a Time of War.” Theological Studies 66.2 (June 2005): 330-357. [Wyclif was well acquainted with the medieval traditions of just war and crusading articulated by theologians and canon lawyers. Yet he had become disillusioned with a Christian society that exploited these traditions to pursue destructive policies of repression and conquest, thereby forsaking the eternal Law of Christ. For Wyclif, the Law of Christ calls upon Christians to conform themselves to the poor and humble Christ of the Gospels. While he never rejected the possibility of a just war in principle, he believed that it was all but impossible in practice. Even where a nation might have a just claim, the better path is always the way of Christ, suffering evil patiently rather than inflicting sufferings upon one’s neighbor.]

—. “Wyclif and the Christian Life.” Levy 293-363.

—. “John Wyclif and the Primitive Papacy.” Viator 38.2 (2007): 159-90. According to Levy’s abstract for this article, “John Wyclif envisioned an ideal church that could be created in his own day, based on the model of the earliest apostolic community depicted in the New Testament. The church of the late fourteenth century would come to resemble the ecclesia primitiva, a poor communion of fellow workers marked by charity and humility. Within this holy fellowship there would be a place for the papacy, but it would no longer resemble the monarchy it had ascended to in the later Middle Ages. Instead, the pope would relate to his fellow bishops as St. Peter had to the other apostles. His fellow Christians would recognize this man as their true pope, for he would be the person most closely resembling the apostolic martyrs and thus prove a genuine disciple of Christ. Wyclif actually bears comparison to two other fourteenth-century critics: Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham. Like Ockham, Wyclif believed that the papacy was established by Christ, although not as it exists in its present form. Yet, unlike Ockham, but similar to Marsilius, he did not concede to the papacy the plenitude of power. In order to gain a more complete understanding of Wyclif’s views one must study his place within the exegetical tradition of such important biblical passages as Matthew 16.18-19 and Galatians 2.11-14.”

—. “John Wyclif on Papal Election, Correction, and Deposition.” Mediaeval Studies 69 (2007): 141-85. Levy here discusses Wyclif’s “view of the mechanics of papal election, correction, and deposition,” rather than topics such as civil dominion and kingship (141). He wants to examine these three topics together because “they all speak to those criteria which are essential for constituting a genuine pope as opposed to a mere pretender” (141). According to Levy, Wyclif “derided a corrupt electoral process only to put forward an almost mystical procedure in its place. He appealed to the centuries-old position of the canonists that an heretical or simoniacal pope could be tried and deposed, but he so broadened the definition of heresy and simony as to make all but the most saintly popes liable to removal. . . . One important subtext that will emerge . . . is that Wyclif consistently championed the role of the theologian, as opposed to the canon lawyer, in determining questions of papal aptitude. Because Holy Scripture formed, for Wyclif, the sole foundation of Christian society, it would fall to the magister sacrae paginae to render authoritative decisions on ecclesiastical governance” (141-42). In the process of the paper, Levy discusses the backgrounds behind these issues to place Wyclif’s views in context.

—. “Holy Scripture and the Quest for Authority among Three Late Medieval Masters.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 61.1 (Jan. 2010): 40-68. [See here for the article. Levy discusses Gerson, Wyclif, and Netter. According to the abstract, “What separated them was not the recognition of authority as such, but rather the correct application of that authority. Wyclif exercised his rights as a university master to dissent from ecclesiastical determinations that ran contrary to the truth as revealed in Scripture. Netter and Gerson set out to curb this sort of magisterial excess which they believed would inevitably lead to the destruction of all proper norms of authority within the Church. Rather than being a simple tale of heresy and orthodoxy, therefore, this late medieval conflict turned on the question of professional expertise, rights and responsibilities.”]

—. Holy Scripture and the Quest for Authority and the End of the Middle Ages. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame P, 2012. [Levy’s book describes ways in which Scripture was argued to be the foundation for ecclesiastical authority between about 1370 to 1430. The book describes a progression through chapters on Wyclif, Woodford, Netter, Hussite controversies, and Gerson.]

—. “The Literal Sense of Scripture and the Search for Truth in the Late Middle Ages.” Revue D’histoire Ecclésiastique 104.3-4 (2009): 783-827. [Levy studies the expanding notion of the literal sense of scripture in the later Middle Ages, especially its identification with the sense intended by its divine author, in the writings of five fourteenth- and fifteenth-century theologians: Richard FitzRalph, John Wyclif, Henry Totting de Oyta, Jean Gerson, and Paul of Burgos.]

—. “A Contextualized Wyclif: Magister Sacrae Paginae.” Bose and Hornbeck 121-134. [Levy describes Wyclif’s views on the authority of scripture, the nature of the literal sense, and the relationship between personal piety and exegesis as typical of late medieval theologians. He argues that because Netter and others distort Wyclif’s beliefs, scholars too often read Wyclif’s works through “the lens of heresy” and disregard his more conventional theology.]

Lewald, Ernst Anton. “Die theologische Doctrin Johann Wycliffe’s. Nach den Quellen dargestellt und Kritische beleuchtet.” Zeitschrift für die Historische Theologie 1846, vol. 2: 171-237, vol. 4: 503-530; 1847, vol. 4: 597-637. [For a contemporary review of this study, with 10 other publications, see “Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics,” British Quarterly Review 28 (1858), included below. pts. 1 and 2, 1846 (2.1 mb); pt. 3, 1847 (>1 mb)]

Lewis, Anna. “Textual Borrowings, Theological Mobility, and the Lollard Pater Noster Commentary.” Philological Quarterly 88 (Winter/Spring 2009): 1-23. [Lollards adapted the content of some orthodox works, including commentaries on the basics of the faith. Of the three so-called “Lollard” commentaries on the Pater Noster, one–the longer of the two in Arnold–“combines radically Lollard complaints,” but “a close look at the text reveals its strong connection to the existing commentary tradition, not only in terms of its ideas, but also in terms of its vocabulary and phrasing. If the ‘lexical minutiae’ found here are sometimes clearly Lollard in character, they are at other times clearly indebted to the orthodox tradition” (2).]

—. “Exegesis of the End: Limitations of Lollard Apocalypticism as Revealed in a Commentary on Matthew 24.” Literature & Theology: An International Journal of Religion, Theory, and Culture 23.4 (Dec. 2009): 375-387. [Abstract: “Lollard writing is characterised by a preoccupation with the end times, but the kind of eschatological mindset the texts reflect has become a matter of some debate. This article seeks to shed some light on this issue through an analysis of the text “Of Mynystris in the Chirche,” a commentary on Matthew 24 and one of the longest Lollard discussions of the Bible’s eschatological prophecies. Specifically, this article points to a correspondence between a tension at the heart of Lollard attitudes to the theory and practice of scriptural exegesis and a tension at the heart of Lollard perspectives on end times events. It therefore demonstrates how this text reveals the way in which Lollard hermeneutics helped to determine the limits of Lollard apocalypticism.”]

—. “Thomas Netter on the Eucharist.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 273-314. [Levy focuses on the discussion of the Eucharist in Book Five. Netter’s dispute with Wyclif is modeled on the eleventh-century debate between Lanfranc and Berengar, likening Wyclif to Berengar, the “cunning manipulator of terms” (274). Though Netter’s argument is certainly polemical, “one is still struck by the affective piety that courses through the entire section” (274). Discussing a number of theologically contentious points, Levy shows that “much of the battle over the Eucharist turned on [their differing interpretations of the] nature of Church tradition” (306).]

—. “Rethinking the Lollardy of the Lucidarie: The Middle English Version of the Elucidarium and Religious Thought in Late Medieval England.” Florilegium 27 (2011): 209-236. [Lewis argues that the Middle English adaptation of Honorius Augustodunensis’ Elucidarium should not be considered Lollard. Rather, it reflects “theological mobility” as it engages with multiple points of view. The article discusses passages related to the Eucharist, the papacy, and antichrist as well as evidence from the two relevant manuscripts (Cambridge, St. John’s College, G.25 and Cambridge University Library Ii.vi.26). An appendix gives a partial transcription from the St. John’s manuscript.]

—. “Give the Reason for the Hope That You Have: Reginald Pecock’s Challenge to (Non)Disputing Lollards,” Studies in Philology 112 (2015): 39-67. [This article explores why Pecock would accuse Lollards, a group with its roots in academia, of refusing to engage in debate and clearly defend their beliefs. It then explains how this accusation reflects Pecock’s own theological project.]

Lewis, Ewart. Medieval Political Ideas. 2 vols. New York: Knopf, 1954.

Lewis, John. The History of the Life and Sufferings of the Reverend and Learned John Wiclif, D.D. London, 1720; new ed. 1820. Rpt. New York: AMS, 1973. [An early, seminal biography. Note that the 1720 edition is also commented upon and summarized in Actorum Eruditorum, included above. (12.7 mb)]

—. The Life of the Learned and Right Reverend Reynold Pecock . . . being a Sequel of The Life of Dr. John Wyclif . . . . Oxford: Clarendon, 1820. [4.9 mb]

Life and Times of John Wycliffe, the Morning Star of the Reformation. London: Religious Tract Society, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death. (1.8 mb)]

Lindberg, Conrad. “The Manuscript and Versions of the Wyclif Bible.” Studia Neophilologica 42 (1970): 333-47.

—. “The Break at Baruch 3:20 in the Middle English Bible.” English Studies 60 (1979): 106-10.

—. “The Language of the Wyclif Bible.” Medieval Studies Conference 1983: Language and Literature. Ed. W. D. Bald and H. Weinstock. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1984. 103-110.

—. “Who Wrote Wiclif’s Bible?” Stockholm Studies in Modern Philology n.s. 7 (1984): 127-35.

—. “A Note on the Vocabulary of the Middle English Bible.” Studia Neophilologica 57:2 (1985): 129-31.

—. “Reconstructing the Lollard Versions of the Bible.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 90:1 (1989): 117-23.

—. “Towards an English Wyclif Canon.” Essays on English Language in Honour of Bertil Sundby. Ed. L.E. Breivik et al. Oslo: Novus, 1989. 179-84.

—. “From Jerome to Wyclif, An Experiment in Translation: The First Prologue.” Studia Neophilologica 63:2 (1991): 143-45.

—. “Literary Aspects of the Wyclif Bible.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 77.3 (1995): 79-85.

—. “The Alpha and Omega of the Middle English Bible.” Barr and Hutchinson 191-200. [Lindberg describes the way in which the Wycliffite method of translation changes over time by comparing several passages from different Bible manuscripts: the beginning of Genesis from the EV version in MS Bodley 959 with the same passage from the LV in MS Bodley 277, and the end of Apocalypse from Oxford, Christ Church Coll. MS 145, what Lindberg says “combines the early and later features at the end,” with the same passage from MS Bodley 277.]

—. A Manual of the Wyclif Bible, including the Psalms: dedicated to the memory of Sven L. Fristedt. Stockholm Studies in English 102. Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2007. [From the Preface: “After half a century’s work on the Wyclif Bible I feel the time has come to sum up my experience of it. I call this book a Manual, intended as it is for other scholars and students who take an interest in Middle English. I have divided it in to three sections: five chapters on external matters, five on internal elements, and five on the various makers of this bible. To illustrate my words I have appended a combined text of the Psalms. For other information I must refer the reader to Forshall & Madden’s monumental edition of the Wycliffite versions (The Holy Bible, Oxford 1850), without which this little book could not have been written. My indebtedness to my predecessor in this field, the late Dr. Sven L. Fristedt (The Wyclif Bible, Stockholm 1953), is also enormous.”]

Lindenbaum, Sheila. “Literate Londoners and Liturgical Change: Sarum Books in City Parishes after 1414.” London and the Kingdom: Essays in Honour of Caroline M. Barron. Harlaxton Medieval STudies 16. Donington: Shaun Tyas, 2008. 384-99.

—. “London after Arundel: Learned Rectors and the Strategies of Orthodox Reform.” Gillespie and Ghosh 187-208. [Lindenbaum describes the pastoral theology of a cohort of university graduates who became rectors in London during the 1430s. She characterizes their work as an effort to reform the London clergy and thereby stem the spread of heresy and anticlericalism. The essay highlights three books owned by Robert Whyte, Walter Crome, and Robert Rooke. Ultimately, Lindebaum argues that “far from disengaging from the challenges of theology, the London rectors were bravely redefining what theology should be.”]

Lindsay, T.M. “A Literary Relic of Scottish Lollardy.” Scottish Historical Review 1 (1903-04): 260-73. [>1 mb]

Lindsay, Philip, and Reginald Groves. The Peasant’s Revolt, 1381. London: Hutchinson, 1950.

Lipton, Emma. “Performing Reform: Lay Piety and the Marriage of Mary and Joseph in the N-Town Cycle.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 23 (2001): 407-435. [According to Lipton, the N-Town plays depiction of the marriage of Mary and Joseph and their subsequent trial for adultery invokes the ideological uses of marriage in contemporary controversy between Lollard and orthodox spokesmen over the proper relationship between lay and clerical authority and over the nature and value of the sacraments. Furthermore, the plays also engage in contemporary disputes over the proper representation of religious subjects by using marriage theology to create a sacramental model of theater that promotes lay piety. This theatrical promotion of lay piety would have appealed not only to moderate constituencies, such as the wealthy patrons of the numerous parish churches in East Anglia, but also to Lollard extremists.]

Little, A.G. and F. Pelster. Oxford Theology and Theologians. Oxford: Clarendon, 1934.

Little, Katherine C. “Catechesis and Castigation: Sin in the Wycliffite Sermon Cycle.” Traditio 54 (1999): 213-44. [Little argues that the sermon cycle implements an instructional narrative for the laity of, among other things, the nature of sin. While such narratives might occur in other writings, “what is new is that the biblical narratives are no longer about the individual’s sin but about institutional sin, particularly that generated by the practices of the established church,” altering the discourse which penitents might use “to narrate their own identities” (217).]

—. “Chaucer’s Parson and the Specter of Wycliffism.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 23 (2001): 225-253. [Critics have long argued over whether or not Chaucer’s Parson is a Wycliffite and, therefore, have been most interested in resolving the contradictions between his appearance in the General Prologue and his Tale in order to support his heterodoxy or orthodoxy. This essay argues that we should preserve this contradiction as central to the Parson’s meaning; whether he is a Wycliffite or not, we are certainly intended to see him in relation to Wycliffism, particularly to the debate over the language of lay instruction that the Wycliffites initiated. Indeed, the split between the two Parsons reflects the larger incompatibility of two objectives found in lay instruction at this particular historical moment: to reform its language and to provide a language for reform.]

—. Confession and Resistance: Defining the Self in Late Medieval England. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006.

—. “Images, Texts, and Exegetics in Chaucer’s Second Nun’s Tale.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 36.1 (2006): 103-33.

Lloyd, M.E.H. “John Wyclif and the Prebend of Lincoln.” English Historical Review 61 (1946): 388-94.

Loades, David, ed. John Foxe and the English Reformation. Aldershot: Scolar, 1997.

Lochrie, Karma. Margery Kempe and Translations of the Flesh. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

—. Heterosyncrasies: Female Sexuality when Normal Wasn’t. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2006. [Lochrie’s study makes Lollardy and women a central concern of her chapter three, “Far From Heaven: Nuns, Prioresses, and Lollard Anxieties.” The book overall focuses, as she says, “on female sexuality in the Middle Ages in an effort to discern a less binary, more diversified understanding of it.” Chapter three begins with the Lollard “Conclusion” that condemns female monastic vows of chastity as perversions. “For the Lollards,” she argues, “chastity served as a repressive trope of the church’s power, of its cultivation of a sphere of privacy, exclusion, and privilege, that included only on the male and female celibates, but a veritable ‘private religion,’ an institution that, instead of practicing Christ’s poverty and participation in the world, hoarded and withheld its wealth in its ‘dark recesses’” (50). Chastity, then, becomes associated with critiques of “idolatry and excessive materiality.” The Lollard argument, she notes, is not to eradicate sexual control as such, but rather “to valorize a different kind of regulation of female desire” (50) which posits chastity within marriage as an ideal. She turns later in the chapter to Chaucer’s Prioress “to argue that her representation is heavily indebted to the Lollard critique of female sexuality and that it further glances at Julian of Norwich and affective spirituality through the lens of Lollard polemics” (50-51).]

Logan, F. Donald. Excommunication and the Secular Arm in Medieval England. Toronto: Pontifical Institute, 1968.

—. “Another Cry of Heresy at Oxford: The Case of Dr. John Holand, 1416.” Cuming 99-113.

—. “Archbishop Thomas Bourgchier Revisited.” The Church in Pre-Reformation Society. Ed. C.M. Barron and P. Harper-Bill. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1985. 170-85.

—. Runaway Religious in Medieval England, c. 1240-1540. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996.

Long, John D. The Bible in English: John Wycliffe and John Tyndale. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America, 1998.

Loomis, Roger. “Was Chaucer a Laodicean?” Essays and Studies in Honor of Carleton Brown. Ed. Percy W. Long. New York: New York Univ. Press, 1940. 129-48. Rpt. in Richard J. Schoeck and Jerome Taylor, eds. Chaucer Criticism: The Canterbury Tales. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1960. 291-310.

Loserth, Johann. Wiclif and Hus. Trans. M.J. Evans. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1884. [This seminal study also contains an appendix in which Loserth edits a number of contemporary documents helpful for the study of Hus and the influence of Wycliffism in Bohemia. Also see the Bibliography of Primary Sources under The Works of Jan Hus for more editions by Loserth. (3.7 mb)]

—. “Zur Verpflanzung der Wiclifie nach Böhmen.” Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte der Deutschen in Böhmen 22 (1884): 220-25.

—. “Über die Versuche wiclif-husitische Lehren nach Österreich, Polen, Ungarn und Croatien zu verpflanzen.” Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte der Deutschen in Böhmen 24 (1886): 97-116.

—. “Wiclif’s Buch ‘Von der Kirche’ (De Ecclesia) un die Nachbildungen desselben in Böhmen.” Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte der Deutschen in Böhmen 24 (1886): 381-418.

—. “Urkunden und Traktate betreffend die Verbreitun des Wiclifismus in Böhmen.” Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte der Deutschen in Böhmen 25 (1887): 329-46.

—. “Simon von Tischnow. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des böhimschen Wyclifismus.” Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte der Deutschen in Böhmen 26 (1888): 221-45.

—. “Die lateinischen Predigten Wiclif’s, die Zeit ihrer Abfassung und ihre Ausnützung durch Hus.” Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte 9 (1888): 523-564. [>1 mb]

—. “Über die Beziehungen zwischen englischen und böhmischen Wiclifiten in den beiden ersten Jarhzehnten des 15. Jahrhunderts.” Mitteilungen des Instituts für öesterreichische Geschichtsforschung 12 (1891): 254-69. [>1 mb]

—. “Die Wiclif’sche Abendmahlslehre und ihre Augname in Böhmen.” Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte der Deutschen in Böhmen 30 (1892): 1-33.

—. Die kirchliche Reformbewegung in England im XIV. Jahundert und ihre Aufnahme und Durchführung in Böhmen. Leipzig, 1893.

—. “Das vermeintliche Schrieben Wiclif’s an Urban VI, und einige verlorene Flugschriften Wiclif’s aus seinen letzten Lebenstagen.” Historische Zeitschrift 75.2 (1895): 476-80.

—. “The Beginnings of Wyclif’s Activity in Ecclesiastical Politics.” English Historical Review 11 (1896): 319-28. [>1 mb]

—. “Studien zur Kirchenpolitik Englands im 14. Jahrhunderts, I Teil.: Bis zum Ausbruch des grossen Schismas (1378).” Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-historischen Klasse 136 (1897): 1-135. [This is the first part of a two-part study published in two extended journal articles; see below for the second, published in 1907. (2.1 mb)]

—. Geschichte des späteren Mittelalters von 1197 bis 1492. Handbuch der mittlealterlichen und neueren Geschichte, Abt. 2. Berlin, 1903. [This is a textbook.]

—. “Studien zur Kirchenpolitik Englands im 14. Jahrhunderts, II Teil.: Die Genesis von Wiclifs Summa Theologiae und seine Lehre von wahren und falschen Papsttum.” Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-historischen Klasse 156 (1907): 1-118. [The second part of a two-part study, the first of which was published in 1897, above. (1.9 mb)]

—. “Die ältesten Streitschriften Wiclifs. Studien über die Anfänge der kirchenpolitischen Tätigkeit Wiclif un die Überlieferung seiner Schriften.” Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Philosophisch-historische Klasse 160.2 (1909): 1-74.

—. “Wiclifs Sendschrieben, Flugschriften, und kleinere Werke kirchen-politischen Inhalts.” Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Philosophisch-historische Klasse 164 (1910): vi, 1-96.

—. “Zur Geschichte des Wyclifismus in Mähren.” Zeitschrift des Vereins für Geschichte Mährens und Schlesiens 17 (1913): 190-205.

—. “Johann von Wyclif und Guilelmus Peraldus: Studien zur Geschichte der Entstehung von Wiclifs Summa Theologie.” Sitzungsberichte der königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, philosophisch-historische Klasse 180.3 (1916): 1—101.

—. “Zur Kritik der Wiclifhandschriften.” Zeitschrift des deutschen Vereins für die Geschichte Mährens und Schlesiens 20 (1916): 247-71.

—. “Johann von Wiclif und Robert Grosseteste, Bischof von Lincoln.” Sitzungsberichte der bayrischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, philosophisch-historische Klasse, 186 (1918): ii, 1-83.

—. “Die kirchenpolitischen Schriften Wiclifs und der englische Bauernauftstand von 1381.” Mittheilungen des Instituts für öesterreichische Geschichte-Forschung. 38 (1920): 399-422.

—. Huss und Wyclif: Zur Genesis der hussitischen Lehre. 2nd ed. München: R. Oldenburgh, 1925.

Lowe, Ben. “Teaching in the ‘Schole of Christ’: Law, Learning, and Love in Early Lollard Pacifism.” The Catholic Historical Review 90.3 (July, 2004): 405-438. [Lowe argues that, far from being simplistic in arguments for pacifism, that early Lollards were very well informed about theories of just war and dominion, and “were constructing an alternative legal justification for peach that contrasted fundamentally with the just war idea, and were insisting that this came from Christ himself, as the only true legitimate authority” (406).]

Lundin, Rebecca Wilson. “Rhetorical Iconoclasm: The Heresy of Lollard Plain Style.” Rhetoric Review 27.2 (2008): 131-46. [According to Lundin, “In this essay I analyze the plain stule as conceived of and used by the Lollards. . . . I argue that the same practices that et Lollard reading and writing apart from orthodox discourse were foundational to the Lollards’ departures from orthodox belief, theorizing language and style in such a way that meaning was free from priestly mediation. This demonstrates the importance of Lollard plain style as both a marker of herersy and a precursor to subsequent notions of plainness.”]

Lupton, Lewis. Wyclif’s Wicket: Sign of a Credible Faith. History of the Geneva Bible 16. London: Olive Tree, 1984.

—. Trodden Thyme: Lollard Aftermath. History of the Geneva Bible 17. London: Olive Tree, 1985.

Luscombe, David. “Wyclif and Hierarchy.” Hudson and Wilks 233-244.

Lutton, Robert. “Connections between Lollard Townsfolk and Gentry in Tenterden in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries.” Aston and Richmond 199-228.

—. Lollardy and Orthodox Religion in Pre-Reformation England: Reconstructing Piety. London: Royal Historical Society, 2006. [“Lutton examines the pious practices and dispositions of families and individuals in relation to the orthodox institutions of parish, chapel and guild, and the beliefs and activities of Wycliffite heretics. He takes issue with portrayals of orthodox religion as buoyant and harmonious, and demonstrates that late medieval piety was increasingly diverse and the parish community far from stable or unified. By investigating the generation of family wealth and changing attitudes to its disposal through inheritance and pious giving in the important Lollard centre of Tenterden in Kent, he suggests that rapid economic development and social change created the conditions for a significant cultural shift.”]

—. “Geographies and Materialities of Piety: Reconciling Competing Narratives of Religious Change in Pre-Reformation and Reformation England.” Pieties in Transition: Religious Practices and Experiences, c.1400-1640. Ed. Robert Lutton and Elisabeth Salter. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007. 11-39. [Lutton examines practices of popular piety and the tolerance of Lollardy in the Weald in Kent, notably Cranbrook and Tenterden.]

—. “Lollardy, Orthodoxy, and Cognitive Psychology.” Bose and Hornbeck 97-120. [In an effort to “develop frameworks for studying Lollardy and orthodoxy side by side,” Lutton describes anthropologist Harvey Whithouse’s model of religiosity and suggests how Lollardy may align with it. Lutton argues that Lollardy included both “doctrinal” and “imagistic” modes of religiosity and proposes that dissent may have been a psychological reaction that attempted to “re-enliven religious experience.”]

Lutzow, Franz H.H.V. The Life and Times of Master John Hus. New York: Dutton, 1921.

Luxton, I. “The Lichfield Court Book: A Postscript.” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 44 (1971): 120-25.

Lytle, Guy Fitch. “John Wyclif, Martin Luther, and Edward Powell: Heresy and the Oxford Theology Faculty and the Beginning of the Reformation.” Hudson and Wilks 465-79.

Maass, M. “Die Wicliff’sche Bibelübersetzung im Vergliech mit der recipirten Englischen aus dem Anfange des 17. Jahrhunderts.” Archiv 29 (1861): 221-30. [>1 mb]

MacCulloch, Diarmaid. Thomas Cranmer: A Life. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1996.

Machan, Tim William. English in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. [“English in the Middle Ages explores the social meanings, functions, and status of the English language in the late-medieval period” (ix). Machan’s book is a “sociolinguistic inquiry into the status of English in the late-medieval period” which argues that “the meanings and functions of a language emerge not from the linguistic or social issues of isolated disciplines (literature, criticism, theology, and so forth) but from a broad sociolinguistic context that Einar Haugen calls the ecology of a language (9). In his chapter on “Language, Dialect, Nation” he includes a brief discussion of contemporary reactions to Lollards, such as Knighton, who believed “that the rendering of theological discussions in English violated social and religious as well as linguistic conventions” (105-106); “By cultivating its own written variety . . . and by closely supervising the productions of its texts, Lollardy itself implicitly endorsed such associations between linguistic and social disruptions” (132).]

MacNab, T.M.A. “Bohemia and the Scottish Lollards.” Records of the Scottish Church History Society 5 (1935): 10-22.

Maitland, Frederic William. “Wyclif on English and Roman Law.” The Law Quarterly Review 12 (1896): 76-78. Rpt. in The Collected Papers of Frederick William Maitland. Vol. 3. Ed. H.A.L. Fisher. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1911. 50-53. [ Maitland (>1 mb)]

Mallard, William. “An Historical Critique of John Wyclif’s Role in the Preaching Tradition Explicated in Terms of His English Sermons and Their Expressed Attitudes toward Biblical Interpretation and the Vernacular Scriptures.” Ph.D. Diss., Duke University, 1956. Abstract rptd. in Church History 27.3 (1958): 273.

—. “John Wyclif and the Tradition of Biblical Authority.” Church History 30 (1961): 50-60.

—. “Dating the Sermones Quadraginta of John Wyclif.” Medievalia et Humanistica o.s. 17 (1966): 86-104.

—. “Clarity and Dilemma: The Forty Sermons of John Wyclif.” Contemporary Reflections on the Medieval Christian Tradition: Essays in Honor of Ray C. Petry. Ed. G.H. Shriver et al. Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1974. 19-38.

Malo, Robyn. “Saints’ relics in medieval English literature.” Ph.D. Diss., The Ohio State University, 2007. [According to the abstract, Malo “examines how the occlusion, control of and access to saints’ relics became the source of significant tensions in late medieval culture and literature. I argue that in England, conflicting ideas about papal control, institutional power and the role of the laity directly influenced the literary presentation of relics and their cults. Because saints’ relics were thought to channel God’s healing power and to work miracles, clerics highly regulated access to these body parts and objects. Literary scholars have seldom recognized this highly politicized regulation of relics. Instead, the assumption has been that relics are, as medieval theology would have it, an uncontroversial bridge between heaven and earth. I show that in fact, when they discussed relics, medieval authors were frequently using relics to explore lay experiences of hierarchical power.” Malo discusses Lollard writings in her first chapter, where she “juxtaposes twelfth-century Latin liturgical and theological tracts on relics with fourteenth-century Lollard attacks on relic cults.”]

—. “Behaving Paradoxically? Wycliffites, Shrines, and Relics.” Bose and Hornbeck 193-210. [Malo challenges the idea that it would be unlikely for a Wycliffite to value a relic, arguing that Wycliffite treatises more often object to elaborate enshrinement than to relics themselves. Characterizing this criticism of enshrinement as a reformist critique, the essay features analysis of writings by Wyclif (and his opponents), Wycliffites, and Reginald Pecock.]

Mann, J. Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1973.

Manning, Bernard L. The People’s Faith in the Time of Wyclif. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1919.

—. “Wyclif and the House of Herod.” Cambridge Historical Journal 2 (1926): 66-67.

—. “Wyclif.” Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 7. Ed. J. R. Tanner et al. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1932. 486-507.

Mantello, F.A.C. “The Endleaves of Trinity College Cambridge MS O.4.43 and John Wyclif’s Responsiones ad Argumenta Cuiusdam Emuli Veritatis.” Speculum 54 (1979): 100-03.

Marks, Richard. “Picturing Word and Text in the Late Medieval English Parish.” Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 162-202.

Marsden, Richard. “‘In the Twinkling of an Eye’: The English of Scripture before Tyndale.” Leeds Studies in English ns 31 (2000): 145-72.

Marshall, Peter. “The Reformation, Lollardy, and Catholicism.” In The Blackwell Companion to Tudor Literature. Ed. Kent Cartwright. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. 15-30. [A short discussion that places lollard in the context of the early reformation.]

—. “Lollards and Protestants Revisited.” Bose and Hornbeck 295-318. [In this historiographical essay, Marshall reviews descriptions of the relationship between Lollardy and the English Reformation in scholarship from the end of the Victorian era to the present. He aims to place modern discussions of Lollardy in a larger history and argues that political and ideological concerns often affect scholars’ assessment of its role in the Reformation.]

Marti, Oscar A. “John Wyclif’s Theory for the Disendowment of the English Church.” Anglican Theological Review 11 (1929): 30-44.

Martin, C. “Walter Burley.” Southern 193-230.

Martin, C. A. “The Middle English Versions of The Ten Commandments, with Special Reference to Rylands English MS 85.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 64.1 (Autumn, 1981): 191-217.

—. “Middle English Manuals of Religious Instruction.” Benskin and Samuels 283-98.

Martin, Carol. “Alys as Allegory: The Ambivalent Heretic.” Comitatus 21 (1990): 52-71.

Martin, Geoffrey. “Knighton’s Lollards.” Aston and Richmond 28-40.

—. “Wyclif, Lollards, and Historian, 1384-1984.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 237-50.

—. “Narrative Sources for the Reign of Richard II.” The Age of Richard II. Ed. James L. Gillespie. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 1997. 51-69. [A very helpful discussion of the various chronicle and other sources, and their relations.]

Martin, Geoffrey, and J.R.L. Highfield. A History of Merton College, Oxford. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997.

Martinet, Marie-Madeleine. “Wyclif et Piers Plowman sous le petit Josias: Le radicalisme médiéval transmis par Robert Crowley au temps d’Edouard VI.” Radicaux à l’anglaise. Ed. Olivier Lutaud. Paris: Centre d’histoire des Idées dans les Iles Britanniques, 1984. 1-16.

Matthew, F.D. The Life of John Wycliffe. London, 1884.

—. “The Date of Wyclif’s Attack on Transubstantiation.” English Historical Review 5 (1890): 328-30. [>1 mb]

—. “On the Authorship of the Wycliffite Bible.” English Historical Review 10 (1895): 91-99. [>1 mb]

Mattingly, Joanna. “Lollards Stop Play? A Curious Case of Non-Performance in 1505.” Medieval English Theatre 22 (2000): 100-111.

Maxfield, E.K. “Chaucer and Religious Reform.” PMLA 39 (1924): 64-74.

McCormack, Frances. Chaucer and the Culture of Dissent. Dublin: Four Courts, 2007. [McCormack makes the claim, unusual since the middle of the twentieth century, that Chaucer depicts his Parson as a lollard, and argues as well that “Chaucer may well have been a lollard” (15).]

—. “Chaucer and Lollardy.” In Chaucer and Religion. Ed. Helen Phillips. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2010. 35-40. [McCormack discusses passages in which lollardy is mentioned or alluded to in Chaucer’s works, and reviews critical commentary on these passages.]

—. “‘Why sholde I sowen draf out of my fest?’: Chaucer and the False Prophet Motif.” In Heresy and Orthodoxy in Early English Literature . Ed. Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin and John Flood. Dublin: Four Courts, 2010. 39-48. [Compares ways that Chaucer depicts the Pardoner as a “false prophet” with ways that he studiously avoids letting the Parson be labeled as one; both depictions are haunted by the shadow of lollardy.]

McCue, James F. “The Doctrine of Transubstantiation from Berengar through the Council of Trent.” Lutherans and Catholics in Dialogue 1-3. Ed. P. C. Empie and T.A. Murphy. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1965. 89-124.

McFarlane, K.B. John Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Nonconformity. London: English Universities Press, 1953.

—. Lancastrian Kings and Lollard Knights. Oxford: Clarendon, 1972.

McGrade, A.S. “Somersaulting Sovereignty: A Note on Reciprocal Lordship and Servitude in Wyclif.” Wood 261-78.

—. “Rights, Natural Rights, and the Philosophy of Law.” The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy, from the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Disintegration of Scholasticism, 1100-1600. Ed. Norman Kretzmann, Anthony Kenny, and Jan Pinborg. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982. 738-756.

McGrath, Alister E. A History of Reformation Thought: an Introduction. 3rd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1999.

McHardy, A.K. “Bishop Buckingham and the Lollards of Lincoln Diocese.” Baker, Schism 131-45.

—. “John Wycliffe’s Mission to Bruges: A Financial Footnote.” Journal of Theological Studies new ser. 24 (1973): 521-22.

—. “The Dissemination of Wyclif’s Ideas.” Hudson and Wilks 361-68.

—. “De Heretico Comburendo, 1401.” Aston and Richmond 112-126.

—. “John Scarle: Ambition and Politics in the Late Medieval Church.” Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 68-93.

McIlroy, Claire Elizabeth. The English Prose Treatises of Richard Rolle. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2004. [McIlroy re-examines Rolle’s “English prose works – Ego Dormio, The Commandment and The Form of Living – in terms of their literary form, content and appeal rather than their relationship to Rolle’s biography. The author argues that in these devotional works (which appealed to a broad readership in late medieval England) Rolle successfully refines traditional affective strategies to develop an implied reader-identity, the individual soul seeking the love of God, which empowers each and every reader in his or her own spiritual journey.”]

McNeill, John Thomas. “Some Emphases in Wyclif’s Teaching.” Journal of Religion 7 (1927) 447-466.

McNiven, Peter. “The Men of Cheshire and the Rebellion of 1403.” Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire 129 (1980): 1-29.

—. Heresy and Politics in the Reign of Henry IV: The Burning of John Badby. Woodbridge: Boydell, 1987.

McShane, Eduardo. A Critical Appraisal of the Antimendicantism of John Wyclif. Romae: Officium Libri Catholici, 1950.

McSheffrey, Shannon. “Women and Lollardy: A Reassessment.” Canadian Journal of History 26 (1991): 199-223.

—. “Literacy and the Gender Gap in the Late Middle Ages: Women and Reading in Lollard Communities.” Women, the Book, and the Godly: Selected Proceedings of the St. Hilda’s Conference, 1993. Ed. Jane H.M. Taylor and Lesley Smith. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1995. 157-70.

—. Gender and Heresy: Women and Men in Lollard Communities 1420-1530. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

—. “Heresy, Orthodoxy, and English Vernacular Religion 1480-1525.” Past and Present 186.1 (Feb. 2005): 47-80. [“Discusses the boundaries between heresy and orthodoxy in England during the late Lollard period. Differences between heretic and orthodox believers; Factors attributed to the existence of heretics in the nation; Citation of vernacular books on heresy practices.”]

McVeigh, T.A. “Chaucer’s Portraits of the Pardoner and Summoner and Wycliff’s Tractatus de simonia.” Classical Folia 29 (1975): 54-58.

Meichtry-Gruber, AnneMarie. “Die Sprache der Wyclif-Bibel: die Verwendung von Lehnwörtern in den Büchern Baruch, Richter und Hiob.” Diss. U of Zurich, 2006.

Melia, Richard. ‘”Non-controversial Lollardy’? The Lollard Attribution of the ‘Diuers treateses of Joh. wiclife in English’ (John Rylands Library, English MS 85).” Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 83.1 (2001): 89-102.

—. “The perfect ‘sumtyme,’ the ‘nowe’ time and the ‘ende’ time: The Driving Force Behind Lollard Reformism?” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Lancaster, 2004.

Menner, Robert J. “A Manuscript of the First Wycliffite Translation of the Bible.” Yale University Library Gazette 19 (1945): 37-44. [On MS Beinecke 125.]

Michael, Emily. “John Wyclif on Body and Mind.” Journal of the History of Ideas 64.3 (2003): 343-60.

—. “John Wyclif’s Atomism.” Atomism in Late Medieval Philosophy and Theology. History of Science and Medicine Library, 8. Ed. Christophe Grellard and Aurélien Robert. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Middleton, Anne. “William Langland’s ‘Kynde Name’: Authorial Signature and Social Identity in Late Fourteenth Century England.” Lee Patterson, ed. Literary Practice and Social Change in Britain, 1380-1540. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1990. 15-82.

—. “Acts of Vagrancy: The C Version ‘Autobiography’ and the Statute of 1388.” Justice and Kerby-Fulton 208-317.

Milligan, William. “Wyclif and the Bible.” Fortnightly Review 43 (June, 1885): 788-98. [>1 mb]

Milsom, S.F.C. “Richard Hunne’s ‘Praemunire.'” English Historical Review 76 (1961): 80-82.

Minnis, Alastair J. “‘Authorial Intention’ and ‘Literal Sense’ in the Exegetical Theories of Richard Fitzralph and John Wyclif: An Essay in the Medieval Theories of Biblical Hermeneutics.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 75, Section C, no. 1 (1975): 1-30.

—. “Late-Medieval Discussions of Compilatio and the Role of the Compilator.” Bietrage zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache und Literatur 101 (1979): 385-201.

—. Medieval Theory of Authorship. 2nd ed. Aldershot: Wildwood House, 1988.

—. “The Author’s Two Bodies? Authority and Fallibility in Late-Medieval Textual Theory.” In Of the Making of Books: Medieval Manuscripts, Their Scribes and Readers: Essays Presented to M.B. Parkes. Ed. P.R. Robinson and Rivkah Zim. Aldershot: Scolar, 1997. 259-79.

—. “Looking for a Sign: The Quest for Nominalism in Ricardian Poetry.” In Essays on Ricardian Literature in Honour of J.A. Burrow. Ed. Alastair Minnis, C.C. Morse, and T. Turville-Petre. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997. 142-78. Rpt. in Translations of Authority in Medieval English Literature: Valuing the Vernacular. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2009. 38-67. [Minnis finds insufficient influence of Nominalism (defined as modern critics have used the term) on Chaucer. Langland’s consideration of Nominalism, especially concerning baptism and Trajan, is more ambiguous, though Minnis believes that Langland “avoided both Neopelagianism and Wycliffite predestinarianism by constructing a Trajan who is given full credit for his ‘truthe’ yet needs some help from a saint” (64). To “locate Langland more precisely on the intellectual map of his day,” Minnis compares his use of Trajan to John Wyclif’s, especially “in relation to Wyclif’s unusual version of the baptismus flaminis episode” (59).]

—. “Making Bodies: Confection and Conception in Walter Brut’s ‘Vernacular Theology.’” In The Theory and Practice of Translation in the Middle Ages. Ed. R. Voaden, R. Tixier, T. Sanchez Roura, and J.R. Rytting. The Medieval Translator 8. Turnhout: Brepols, 2004. 1-16. Rpt. in Translations of Authority in Medieval English Literature: Valuing the Vernacular. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2009. 90-111. [Considers two questions asked of Brut, “whether women are suitable ministers to confect the sacrament of the Eucharist,” and “whether women confect or can confect as true priests the sacrament of the Eucharist” (92). Minnis uses these to consider “the formulation of one issue which arose in the course of the debate: the proposed connection between two ways in which Christ’s body was made, through conception and through confection” (94). The question is deeply connected to whether women can preach, and therefore to the status of languages in which the Word might be preached.]

—. “‘Respondent Walterus Bryth . . .’: Walter Brut in Debate on Women Priests.” Barr and Hutchinson 229-49. [Minnis considers the theology of Brut’s arguments on women priests (recorded in Bp. Trefnant’s Register and in four quaestio that appear in BL, MS Harley 31) in the light of Wyclif’s doctrine of dominion and its implication that the clerical hierarchy and righteousness do not coincide, but that righteousness was the only true authority.]

—. Fallible Authors: Chaucer’s Pardoner and Wife of Bath. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. [The starting point for Minnis’s discussion is Donatism–whether a priest in sin can even so validly perform sacraments. He traces the echoes of Chaucer’s texts throughout contemporary philosophical and theological texts, including Wycliffite writings, concerned with truth and verifiability, women priests, sin, sexuality, and the sacraments.]

—. “Tobit’s Dog and the Dangers of Literalism: William Woodford O.F.M. as Critic of Wycliffite Exegesis.” Defenders and Critics of Franciscan Life: Essays in Honour of John V. Fleming. Ed. Michael F. Cusato and Guy Geltner. Leiden: Brill, 2009. 41-52. [Focuses on Woodforde’s critique, in his Quattuor determinationes, of Wyclif’s belief that “present-day religion is full of human institutions and traditions which have no Biblical precedent—and therefore they should be removed” (45), which argued that religious orders should also be removed. Minnis focuses on the second determination, which “offers a reductio ad absurdum of Wyclif’s view that every truth which is conducive to salvation is to be found in the Bible” (45). Minnis describes several responses by Woodforde to this. One of them is to say, with a reductive literalism, that “Tobit had a dog” is not conducive to salvation (48).]

—. “‘Oonly consent of love is sufficient for matrimonie’: Translating John Wyclif’s Word of the Mind.” In Lost in Translation?, ed. Denis Renevey and Christina Whitehead. The Medieval Translator 12. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. 189-203. [“One of the most striking [of Wyclif’s ideas about the sacraments] is that ‘consent of love’ alone is sufficient for matrimony. . . . There is no need for the saying of banns, the presence of a priest, or, indeed, for the expression of vows by the couple who are joining together in holy matrimony. Speech of any kind is unnecessary. . . . In tracking the translatio . . . of such doctrine from Wyclif’s Latin works to the vernacular records of fifteenth-century heresy trials, we may perhaps gain a little insight into how certain men and women, from East Anglia and Kent, sought to theorize the business of love and marriage in light of a version of Christianity which combined a strong predestinarian impulse with a strict puritanism in sexual matters” (190). Minnis considers Sir Lewis Clifford, William White, Wyclif (the Trialogus), Netter, and Pecock in his discussion.]

—. “Wyclif’s Eden: Sex, Death, and Dominion.” Bose and Hornbeck 59-78. [This essay analyzes De statu innocencie, a speculative treatise Wyclif wrote about the condition of humanity in Eden. Minnis characterizes its subject matter as a typical subject of inquiry for scholastic theologians and often compares Wyclif’s views on bodily pleasure, death, and dominion to Aquinas’ writings.]

Moessner, Lilo. “Translation Strategies in Middle English: The Case of the Wycliffite Bible.” Poetica: An International Journal of Linguistic-Literary Studies 55 (2001): 123-54. [Moessner bases this study on Psalms 1-50.]

Molnár, Amadeo. “L’evolution de la théologie hussite.” Revue d’histoire et de philosophie religieuses 43 (1963): 133-71.

—. “Les responses de Jean Huss aux quarante-cinq articles.” Recherches de theologie medievale et ancienne 31 (1964): 85-99.

—. “Apocalypse XII dans l’interprétation hussite.” Revue d’histoire et de philosophie religieuses 45 (1965): 212-31.

—. “Der alternde Wyclif und die Logik der Heiligen Schrift.” Communio Viatorum 28.3-4 (Winter, 1985): 161-76.

Molnar, Enrico C.S. “Marsilius of Padua, Wyclyf, and Hus.” Anglican Theological Review 44 (1962): 33-43.

—. “The Liturgical Reforms of John Hus.” Speculum 41.2 (1966): 297-303.

—. “Wyclif, Hus and the Problem of Authority.” Seibt, et al. 167-82.

Moore, Robert I. “Literacy and the Making of Heresy.” Biller and Hudson 19-37.

Morrison, Stephen. “Lollardy in the Fifteenth Century-The Evidence of Some Orthodox Texts.” Cahiers Elisabethains: Late Medieval and Renaissance Studies 52 (1997): 1-24.

Morrison, Susan Signe. “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: The Wife of Bath and Vernacular Translations.” Exemplaria 8.1 (1996): 97-123.

Morse, Mary, “‘Tak and Bren Hir’: Lollardy as Conversion Motif in The Book of Margery Kempe.” Mystics Quarterly 29 (2003): 24-44. [This essay focuses on the Lollard incidents in the Book of Margery Kempe, arguing that they “serve as a call to conversion” (24). She emphasizes that this is a work of spiritual instruction, in which Kempe’s oral learning is presented during the accusations. In this way, Lollardy becomes a space for proof of Kempe’s authority and orthodoxy.]

Moser, Otto. “Untersuchungen über die Sprache John Bale’s.” Dissertation. Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin, 1902. [>1 mb]

Moss, Amanda. “A Merchant’s Tales: A London Fifteenth-Century Household Miscellany.” Yearbook of English Studies 33 (2003): 156-69. [This is about Westminster School MS 3; it discusses the composition of the various booklets in the manuscript, revising earlier arguments by Hanna and others, to conclude that it was compiled in a secular context.]

Mozley, J.F. John Foxe and his Book. New York: Macmillan, 1940.

Mudroch, Vaclav. “John Wyclyf and Richard Flemyng, Bishop of Lincoln: Gleanings from German Sources.” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 37 (1964): 239-45.

—. “John Wyclyf’s Postilla in Fifteenth-Century Bohemia.” Canadian Journal of Theology 10.2 (1964): 118-23.

—. The Wyclyf Tradition. Ed. A. Compton Reeves. Athens, Ohio: Ohio Univ. Press, 1979.

Mueller, Ivan J. “A ‘Lost’ Summa of John Wyclif.” Hudson and Wilks 179-83.

Mueller, Janel. The Native Tongue and the Word. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1984.

Muessig, Carolyn. “Sermon, Preacher, and Society in the Middle Ages.” Journal of Medieval History 28 (2002): 73-91. [This essay touches on Lollardy only briefly, but serves to place it within the larger range of sermon studies in the last quarter century. Dividing work on sermons into “sermon,” “preacher,” and “society,” Muessig’s historiographical paper discusses how historians use sermons, investigate the diversity of preachers, and have developed studies which examine sermons as sources for intellectual and moral life in the middle ages.]

Muir, Lawrence. “The Influence of the Rolle and Wyclifite Psalters upon the Psalter of the Authorized Version.” Modern Language Review 30.3 (Jul., 1935): 302-10.

Muldoon, James. “John Wyclif and the Rights of the Infidels: The ‘Requerimiento’ Re-examined.” Americas (Academy of American Franciscan History) 6.3 (1980): 301-16.

Mullett, Charles F. “Cant Language, Common Language, and Ambiguity: English Churchmen, Linguistics, and Social Change.” Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 40.3 (1971): 447-59.

Mullins, Patrick. “Netter’s Defence of Extreme Unction Against Wyclif.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 251-70. [Mullins focuses on ch. 25 of Book Four of the Doctrinale. Wyclif and lollards (according to the 1394 “Twelve Conclusions”) rejected Extreme Unction. Mullins outlines Netter’s case against Wyclif and notes later references.]

Murray, Thomas. The Life of John Wycliffe. Edinburgh: John Boyd, 1829. [An early biography. This includes, in its appendix, an antiquated but interesting discussion of the origins of the term “lollard.” (2.8 mb)]

Mussolini, Benito. John Huss. Trans. Clifford S. Parker. New York: A&C Boni, 1929.

Nelson, Janet L. “Society, Theodicy, and the Origins of Heresy: Towards a Reassessment of the Medieval Evidence.” Baker, Schism 65-77.

Nevanlinna, Saara. “The Occurrence of Glosses in Three Late Middle-English Texts: Lexical Variation.” Historical Linguistics and Philology. Ed. Jacek Fisiak. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1990. 273-89.

—. “Distribution of Glosses in MSS of the Wycliffite Gospel of John: The Class of Paraphrase.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 102.2 (2001): 173-83.

Ng, Su Fang. “Translation, Interpretation, and Heresy: The Wycliffite Bible, Tyndale’s Bible, and the Contested Origin.” Studies in Philology 98.3 (Summer, 2001): 315-39. [Ng argues that “what is most significant in this history [of the Reformation] is the continuity from the late medieval to the early modern period of the subversiveness of translation, when possession of the vernacular scripture could condemn one as a heretic and vernacular writings other than scripture were perceived as dangerous, always potentially heretical. The subversiveness of translation arises not only out of its status as a heretical text or its use to mount challenges to clerical and secular political authority. I argue that translation is also subversive because it challenges the claim to an ‘original’ and to an ‘origin.'” Ng therefore examines defenses of translation in the General Prologue (though she also refers to Trevisa) and Tyndale to describe “the narrative about a newly developing relation between a Christian believer and (translated) text.”]

Nichols, Ann Eljenholm. “Books for Laymen, The Demise of a Commonplace: Lollard Texts and the Justification of Images as a Continuity of Belief and Polemic.” Church History 56.4 (1987): 457-73. [According to the abstract, “The exact relationship between Lollardy and the sixteenth-century Reformation long has eluded students of English history. Recent detailed studies of Lollard texts have underlined a continuity of belief and polemic. One significant difference, however, is the way in which reformers in the two periods used the commonplace saying that images are “laymen’s books.” The Lollards, even those who were the most outspoken critics of images, used Gregory the Great’s metaphor to support their positions. In the 1530s the English reformers used the commonplace in similar ways, but by the 1540s they had rejected it altogether. The English reformers, however, did more than merely reject Gregory as an authority. Instead of dismissing the old justification of images as a false sophism, as the continental reformers had done in the 1520s, they appropriated the laymen’s-book metaphor for their own polemic, turning it against the iconophiles. Furthermore, they developed the metaphor in a new way that provided a positive alternative for the illiterate, arguing that the simple and unlearned read not from the book of art but rather from the natural world around them.”]

—. “Lollard Language in the Croxton Play of the Sacrament.” Notes and Queries 36:1 (1989): 23-25.

—. Seeable Signs: The Iconography of the Seven Sacraments, 1350-1544. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1997.

—. “The East Anglian Lollards Revisited: Parochial Art in Norfolk.” The Ricardian 13 (2003): 359-70.

—. “The Illustrations of Corpus Christi College MS 32: ‘Þe glose in Englissche Tunge.'” Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 37-67.

Niezen, R.W. “Hot Literacy in Cold Societies: A Comparative Study of the Sacred Power of Writing.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 33 (1991): 225-54.

Nissé, Ruth [Ruth Shklar]. “Cobham’s Daughter: The Book of Margery Kempe and the Power of Heterodox Thinking.” Modern Language Quarterly 56:3 (1995): 277-304.

—. “Reversing Discipline: The Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge, Lollard Exegesis, and the Failure of Representation.” Yearbook of Langland Studies 11 (1997): 163-94.

—. “Staged Interpretations: Civic Rhetoric and Lollard Politics in the York Plays.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 28.2 (Spring, 1998): 427-73.

—. “Grace under Pressure: Conduct and Representation in the Norwich Heresy Trials.” Medieval Conduct. Ed. K. Ashley and L.A. Clark. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2001. 207-25.

—. “Prophetic Nations.” New Medieval Literatures IV. Ed. W. Scase, R. Copeland, and D. Lawton. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001. 95-115. [Nissé works with three texts–Roquetaillade’s Vade Mecumin Tribulatione, its reception in the Eulogium Historiarum, and Walter Brut’s self-defense at his trial–to “explore the cultural implications of the apocalyptic political expectations and geography” which they exemplify (96). Her examination of Brut argues that he “uses the new idea of history that emerges from this crisis [of the impossibility of secular, linear historical writing demonstrated in the Eulogium] to construct a narrative of reform in which British faith will triumph over Antichrist’s Church” (96).]

—. Defining Acts: Drama and the Politics of Interpretation in Late Medieval England. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 2004. [According to the press release, “Defining Acts considers how the surviving English theatrical works of the fifteenth century represent competing practices of interpretation. The plays take up a series of contests over who could legitimately determine the meaning of texts–men or women, clerics or laity, rulers or subjects, Christians or Jews–and transform these questions for audiences far beyond their original medieval academic contexts. Nissé focuses in particular on how theater translates the temporal ideas of textual exegesis into spatial models and politics. She situates medieval drama, therefore, both in its vernacular literary setting, as a genre composed against the same cultural background as The Canterbury Tales, Piers Plowman, and The Book of Margery Kempe, and in its performances, which negotiate a range of contemporary social and political issues.]

Nuttall C. “Bishop Pecock and the Lollard Movement.” Transactions of the Congregational History Society 13 (1937-9): 82-6.

Oberman, Heiko A. Archbishop Thomas Bradwardine, A Fourteenth-Century Augustinian: A Study of his Theology in its Historical Context. Utrecht: Kemink and Zoon, 1958.

—. The Harvest of Late Medieval Theology: Gabriel Biel and Late Medieval Nominalism. 3rd ed. Durham: Labyrinth Press, 1983.

Ocker, Christopher. Biblical Poetics Before Humanism and Reformation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002. [According to the press release, “Biblical Poetics Before Humanism and Reformation is a study of the interpretation of the Bible in the late Middle Ages. Scholastic theologians developed a distinct attitude toward textual meaning in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries which departed significantly from earlier trends. Their attitude tended to erode the distinction, emphasized by the scholars of St. Victor in the twelfth century, between literal and spiritual senses of scripture. Christopher Ocker argues that interpreters developed a biblical poetics very similar to that cultivated and promoted by Protestants in the sixteenth century, which was reinforced by the adaptation of humanist rhetoric to Bible reading after Lorenzo Valla. The book is a comparative study, drawing from a variety of unpublished commentaries as well as more familiar works by Nicholas of Lyra, John Wyclif, Jean Gerson, Denys the Carthusian, Wendelin Steinbach, Desiderius Erasmus, Philip Melanchthon, and John Calvin.”]

—. “The Bible in the Fifteenth Century.” The Cambridge History of Christianity, 4: Christianity in Western Europe c. 1100 – c. 1500. Ed. Miri Rubin and Walter Simons. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009. 472-93. [A detailed discussion that starts with Biblical scholarship, and moves to ways in which biblical knowledge was disseminated to the laity during the century, including the Wycliffite translation along with private devotions and sermons. According to Ocker, “This was a conservative century for the church, marked by reactions to Hussites and Wycliffites and by attempts to restore the papal monarchy and adapt to the encroaching impossibility of papal temporal influence outside Italy” (488).]

Odlozilík, Otakar. “Wyclif’s Influence upon Central and Eastern Europe.” Slavonic Review 7 (1928-9): 634-48.

—. Wyclif and Bohemia, Two Essays. Prague: published by the author, 1937.

—. The Hussite King: Bohemia and European Affairs, 1440-1471. New Brunswick: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1965.

O’Donnell, Christopher. “A Controversy on Confirmation: Thomas Netter of Walden and Wyclif.” Bergström-Allen and Copsey 317-332. [O’Donnell outlines Wyclif’s argument against Confirmation in the Trialogus, Netter’s extensive reply, and puts them into context, noting that both were rehearsing earlier arguments, but that differences occur in methodology, especially in Netter’s disagreement with Wyclif’s scriptura sola principle.]

O’Donovan, Joan Lockwood. Theology of Law and Authority in the English Reformation. Atlanta: Scholars, 1991.

—. “Natural Law and Perfect Community: Contributions of Christian Platonism to Political Theory.” Modern Theology 14.1 (1998): 19-42.

Ogle, Arthur. The Tragedy of the Lollard’s Tower. Oxford: Pen-in-Hand, 1949.

—. The Canon Law in Medieval England; an Examination of William Lyndwood’s “Provinciale” in reply to the Late Professor Maitland. Rpt. New York: Burt Franklin, 1971.

Olson, Glending. “Plays as Play: A Medieval Ethical Theory of Performance and the Intellectual Context of the Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge.” Viator 26 (1995): 195-221.

Olson, Paul A. The Canterbury Tales and the Good Society. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1986.

Orme, Nicholas. English Schools in the Middle Ages. London: Methuen, 1973.

—. “John Wycliffe and the Prebend of Aust.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 61.1 (Jan. 2010): 144-152. [“The article discusses the tenure of 14th-century English theologian and church reformer John Wycliffe as the prebend of Aust in the collegiate church of Westbury-on-Trym in Gloucestershire, England. The prebendary, one of four benefices held by Wycliffe in his life, is controversial because the economic benefit he derived from it seems to conflict with Wycliffe’s reputation as a critic of the Catholic Church. Therefore, the article re-examines documents pertaining to the dates of the prebendary and the payments Wycliffe received for it.”]

Ortmann, Franz J. Formen und Syntax des Verbes bei Wycliffe und Purvey. Berlin: Mayer und Müller, 1902. [1.1 mb]

Östermann, A. “‘There’ Compounds in Early English Bible Translation.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 99.1 (1998): 71-82.

Overstreet, Samuel A. “‘Grammaticus Ludens’: Theological Aspects of Langland’s Grammatical Allegory.” Traditio 40 (1984): 252-96.

Owst, G.R. Preaching in Medieval England. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1926.

—. Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England. 2nd rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1961.

Panayotova, Stella. “Cuttings From an Unknown Copy of the Magna Glossatura in a Wycliffite Bible (British Library, Arundel MS. 104).” British Library Journal 25.1 (1999): 85-100.

Pantin, William A. “A Benedictine Opponent of John Wyclif.” English Historical Review 43 (1928): 73-7.

—. “The Defensorium of Adam Easton.” English Historical Review 51 (1936): 675-80.

—. The English Church in the Fourteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1955.

—. “The Fourteenth Century.” The English Church and the Papacy in the Middle Ages. Ed. C.H. Lawrence. New York: Fordham Univ. Press, 1965. 157-94.

Parker, Douglas H. “A Proper Dyaloge Betwene A Gentillman and a Husbandman: The Question of Authorship.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 78.1 (1996): 63-75.

Parker, G.H.W. The Morning Star: Wycliffe and the Dawn of the Reformation. Exeter: Paternoster, 1965.

Partridge, A.C. English Biblical Translation. London: André Deutsch, 1973.

Patrouch, Joseph F. Reginald Pecock. New York: Twayne, 1970.

Patschovsky, Alexander. “The Literacy of Waldensianism from Valdes to c. 1400.” Biller and Hudson 112-136.

—. “Ekklesiologie bei Johannes Hus.” Lebenslehren und Weltentwürfe im Übergang vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit: Politik – Bildung – Naturkunde – Theologie. Ed Hartmut Boockmann et al. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse 3, Folge 179. Goettingen, 1989. 370-399.

—. “‘Antichrist’ bei Wyclif.” Patschovsky and Šmahel 83-98.

Patterson, Annabel. Reading Holinshed’s Chronicles. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1994.

—. “Sir John Oldcastle as a Symbol of Reformation Historiography.” Religion, Literature, and Politics in Post-Reformation England, 1540-2688. Ed. Donna B. Hamilton and Richard Strier. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996. 6-26.

Patterson, Lee. “The ‘Parson’s Tale’ and the Quitting of the ‘Canterbury Tales.'” Traditio 34 (1978): 331-380.

—. “Chaucer’s Pardoner on the Couch: Psyche and Clio in Medieval Literary Studies.” Speculum 79.3 (July, 2001): 638-80.

Pauli, Reinhold. Bilder aus Alt-England. 1860. Trans. E.C. Otté, Cambridge, 1861. 2nded., Gotha, 1876. [Pauli, who also edited Gower’s Confessio Amantis, includes here a chapter on Wyclif. (7.2 mb)]

Paull, M.R. “Mahomet and the Conversion of the Heathen in Piers Plowman.” English Language Notes 10 (1972): 1-8.

Pearsall, Derek. “Lunatyk Lollares in Piers Plowman.” Religion in the Poetry and Drama of the Late Middle Ages in England: the J.A.W. Bennett Memorial Lectures. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1990. 163-78.

—. The Life of Geoffrey Chaucer: A Critical Biography. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1992.

—. “Langland and Lollardy: From B to C.” The Yearbook of Langland Studies 17 (2003): 7-24. ‘This essay, a contribution to a special section on “Langland and Lollardy,” looks at the conceptual and verbal parallels between Piers Plowman and Wycliffite writings in light of Langland’s B-C revisions. Pearsall argues that artistic clarity and “local economy of expression” (16), not disavowal, motivated changes to the B-text. While it is possible that some changes were made for ideological reasons, on the whole, changes made with regard to “sensitive matters” stressed the “nature of the poem as a poem” (10).]

Peck, Russell. “Social Conscience and the Poets.” Social Unrest in the Later Middle Ages. Ed. Francis X. Newman. Binghamton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1986. 113-148.

Peikola, Matti. “On the Trail of Wycliffite Discourse: Notes on the Relationship Between Language Use and Identity in the Wycliffite Sect.” Topics and Comments: Papers from the Discourse Project. Ed. S.K. Tanskanen and B. Warvik. Turku, Finland: Univ. of Turku, 1994. 75-88.

—. “‘Whom Clepist Thou Trewe Pilgrims?’: Lollard Discourse on Pilgrimages in the Testimony of William Thorpe.” Essays and Explorations: A “Freundschrift” for Lisa Dahl. Ed. M. Gustafsson. Turku, Finland: Univ. of Turku, 1996.

—. “‘And after all, my Aue-Maria almost to the ende’: Pierce the Ploughman’s Crede and Lollard Expositions of the Ave Maria.” English Studies 4 (2000): 273-92.

—. Congregation of the Elect: Patterns of Self-Fashioning in English Lollard Writings. Anglicana Turkuensia 21. Turku, Finland: Univ. of Turku, 2000.

—. “The Catalogue: A Late Middle English Lollard Genre?” Discourse Perspectives on English, Medieval to Modern. Ed. R. Hiltunen and J. Skaffari. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2003. 105-135. [Most research on Lollard writings has been targeted at the Wycliffite Bible, the sermons, to the detriment of shorter treatises. Peikola examines one form of tract, the catalogue, listing 22 different catalogues, discussing their structure, lexical markings, types, audiences, and their similarities to scholastic, judicial, and legislative textual practices. The catalogue is one apparent instance of the vernacularization of Latinate textual practice by Lollard writers.]

—. “Individual Voice in Lollard Discourse.” Approaches to Style and Discourse in English. Ed. R. Hiltunen and S. Watanabe. Osaka: Osaka UP, 2004. 51-77. [Peikola begins by noting that Lollard writers frequently “opt for a collective and atemporal mode of discourse” as opposed to a discourse which is self-consciously personal or historically situated. Peikola investigates exceptions to this, asking how and why a more personal voice arises, how often it happens, and what it can tell us about the “situational context of texts.” He approaches this linguistically, examining texts for specific lexical markers (first person pronouns, specific verb forms, exclamations) which indicate a self-consciously subjective voice, and examining the distribution of these markers. Such a voice typically arises in “apologetic, metatextual, and polemical contexts,” and indicated the variety of intended audiences, both sympathetic and not.]

—. “‘First is writen a clause of the bigynnynge therof’: The Table of Lections in Manuscripts of the Wycliffite Bible.” Boletín Millares Carlo 24-25 (2005-06): 343-78. [According to Peiloka, “This articles discusses the Middle English tables of lections (tabulae lectionun, capitularis lists of periocopes) – liturgical referential tools found in almost one hundred later-fourteenth / early-fifteenth-century manuscripts of the Wycliffite Bible. The major part of the article surveys variation in the form and content of the tables, serving the needs of genre description and paving the way for further textual scholarship (a preliminary list of the Wycliffite tables is presented in Appendix A). The concluding discussion addresses the use of the tables from the point of view of readers of the Wycliffite Bible. It is argued that the structural and textual development of the tables testifies to a gradual loss of Wycliffite ideological control over the use and design of the English tables of lections. A previously unpublished Wucliffite texts related to his qustion is included in appendix B.” The text in Appendix B is from BL Egerton 618, ff. 173r-v.]

—. “Lollard (?) Production Under the Looking Glass: The Case of Columbia University, Plimpton Add. MS 3.” Journal of the Early Book Society 9 (2006): 1-23.

—. “Aspects of Mise-En-Page in Manuscripts of the Wycliffite Bible.” In Medieval Texts in Context. Ed. Graham D. Caie and Denis Renevey. London: Routledge, 2008. 28-67. [Peikola argues that “the layout of the page . . . ‘silently guides the reader towards a certain reception'” (5). Investigating 127 manuscripts of the Bible, he attends to running headers, initials, and especially ruling patterns to “establish whether any such groupings of manuscripts emerge which could provide a starting point for further and more detailed case studies of book productions involving the Wycliffite Bible” (51).]

—. “The Sanctorale, Thomas of Woodstock’s English Bible, and the Orthodox Appropriation of Wycliffite Tables of Lessons.” Bose and Hornbeck 153-174. [In this essay, Peikola describes different styles of the sanctorale (lists of lessons for the feasts of saints) in Wycliffite Bibles and argues that changes over time point to an increasingly orthodox readership. In addition to outlining this broader phenomenon, he analyzes polemical comments in the Bible thought to be owned by Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester (London, British Library, MS Egerton 618) that challenge the sainthood of many canonized by the church.]

—. “Tables of Lections in Manuscripts of the Wycliffite Bible.” Poleg and Light 351-378.

—. “Manuscript Paratexts in the Making” British Library MS Harley 6333 as a Liturgical Compilation.” Corbellini, Hoogvliet, and Ramakers 44-67.

Penn, Stephen. “Antiquity, Eternity, and the Foundations of Authority: Reflections on a Debate between John Wyclif and John Kenningham, O. Carm.” Trivium 32 (2000): 107-119.

—. “Wyclif and the Sacraments.” Levy 241-91.

Pennington, Arthur Robert. John Wyclif: His Life, Times, and Teaching. London: Society for the Promoting of Christian Knowledge, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death. For a contemporary review, see “Wiclif and his Works,” included below. (3.2 mb)]

Penny, D. Andrew. Freewill or Predestination: The Battle over Saving Grace in Mid-Tudor England. Royal Historical Society Studies in History 63. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1991. [“Traces the mainstream of early English reaction to the spread of the predestinarian doctrines of the continental reformers which began to dominate England’s Protestant leadership during the Edwardian years. . . . finds that finds a mature alternative to Genevan theology existed by the reign of Mary Tudor, led by of a core of ‘freewill men’ who, in Lollard fashion, looked to the scriptures in English for their beliefs, rather than to the new ecclesiastical establishment and state officialdom.”]

Peschke, Erhard. “Die Bedeutung Wiclefs für die Theologie der Böhmen.” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 54 (1935): 464-83.

Peters, Christine. Patterns of Piety: Women, Gender, and Religion in Late Medieval and Reformation England. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. [Though Lollardy is not the topic of Peters’ book, its later medieval context is. Similar to Eamon Duffy’s work, Peters “stresses and defined the importance of continuity” in late medieval religious practice (2). At the same time, she argues that “the laity, despite Duffy’s ‘traditional’ epithet, was far from passive in its religious choices” (3). Her study emphasizes the development of Christocentric piety during the period, and how this “intersected with the devotional needs of a parish religion in which mystical ecstasy, and ideas of the individual as the bride of Christ, were less important than the pastorally inspired concerns of moral teaching [ . . . ]. For both Marian and Christ-centered devotion, our assumptions concerning the relationship between religion and gender need to be reconsidered” (4-5). The study covers a wide range of topics, including religious practices (e.g., marriage) as well as pressing religious issues of the time (the saints, the Old Testament). She uses Churchwardens’ accounts, chapel wall paintings, and contemporary texts as sources. The volume includes a helpful index of “Churchwardens’ accounts before 1570.”]

Peterson, Kate Oelzner. “The Sources of the Parson’s Tale.” Radcliffe College Monographs 12. Boston: Athenaeum, 1901. [This key article modified Skeat’s theory that the Tale was derived from Friar Loren’s Somme le Roi to show that it was mostly derived from penitential treatises by Raymund of Pennaforte and Peraldus. Note that much recent work building on Peterson has been published by, especially, Siegfried Wenzel. (2.2 mb)]

Petit-Dutaillis, Charles. “Le Prédications Popularies: Les Lollards et le soulèvement des travailleurs angalis en 1381.” Études d’histoire du Moyen-Âge dédièes à Gabriel Monod. Ed. L. Cerf et al. Paris, 1896. 373-88. [>1 mb]

Phillips, Heather. “John Wyclif and the Optics of the Eucharist.” Hudson and Wilks 245-58.

—. “John Wyclif and the Religion of the People.” A Distinct Voice: Medieval Studies in Honor of Leonard E. Boyle, O.P. Ed. Jacqueline Brown and William P. Stoneman. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1997. 561-590.

Phillips, Helen. “Register, Politics, and the Legend of Good Women.” The Chaucer Review 37.2 (2002): 101-128. [Chaucer has often been read as ignoring contemporary politics. But, attention to the polysemous registers of the various words in the G Prologue to the Legend of Good Women demonstrates that Chaucer is very attentive to contemporary political debates. Such attention to contemporary buzzwords and sociolects in his poetry moves readers beyond merely an ironic Chaucer, in which we read him for the “false surface and the underlying (ironic) truth” (102). Phillips pays especial attention to Wycliffite and political registers in the Prologue.]

Phythian-Adams, Charles. Desolation of a City: Coventry and the Urban Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979.

Pitard, Derrick. “A New Language of Authority: The Growth of Vernacular Religious Literacy in England during the Later Middle Ages.” PhD diss. U. of Rochester, 1997.

—. “Sowing Difficulty: The Parson’s Tale, Vernacular Commentary, and The Nature of Chaucerian Dissent.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 25 (2004): 299-330. [The Parson’s Tale is an odd combination of a subjective context framing incontrovertibly authoritative content. This subjectivity, which makes the Tale similar to other contemporary mystical and devotional texts, defines its distinct vernacularity in contrast to contemporary Lollard texts. The essay argues that Chaucer’s depiction the seemingly Lollard characteristics which surround the Parson can be best clarified by making more precisely clear the linguistic mode of the “vernacular.” The contrast between the tale’s content and context makes it the most vivid example of Chaucer’s argument for the possibility of a vernacular that might carry linguistic authority.]

Plumb, Derek. “The Social and Economic Spread of Rural Lollardy: A Reappraisal.” Sheils and Wood, Voluntary Religion 111-129.

—. “The Social and Economic Status of Later Lollards.” Spufford 103-31.

—. “A Gathered Church? Lollards and their Society.” Spufford 132-63.

Poleg, Eyal. “Wycliffite Bibles as Orthodoxy.” Corbellini 71-91.

Poole, Kristen. “Saints Alive! Falstaff, Martin Marprelate, and the Staging of Puritanism.” Shakespeare Quarterly 46.1 (Spring 1995): 47-76.

Poole, Reginald L. “Wycliffe’s Birthplace.” The Athenaeum 2960 (July 19, 1884): 82.

—. “On the Intercourse between English and Bohemian Wycliffites in the Early Years of the Fifteenth Century.” English Historical Review 7 (1892): 306-11. [>1 mb]

—. Wycliffe and Movements for Reform. London: Longmans, Green, 1889. New ed., 1911. [A relatively original biography which places his work in a more academic context than many contemporary studies. (2.5 mb)]

—. Illustrations of the History of Medieval Thought and Learning. 1884. 2nd ed., London, 1920. [This book’s final chapter is on “Wycliffe’s Doctrine of Dominion.” (5.9 mb)]

Pope, Hugh. “The Lollard Bible.” Dublin Review 168 (1921): 60-72. [>1 mb]

Potkay, Monica B. “Cleanness on the Question of Images.” Viator 26 (1995): 181-93.

Powell, Susan. “Lollards and Lombards: Late Medieval Bogeymen?” Medium Aevum 59:1 (1990): 133-39.

Price, David, and Charles C. Ryrie. Let It Go Among our People: An Illustrated History of the English Bible from John Wyclif to the King James Version. Cambridge: Lutterworth, 2004. [This volume was published to coincide with the anniversary of the 1604 Hampton Court conference, which decided to create the King James translation. Price and Ryrie attend to both stylistic and political arguments that arose over Biblical translation between the late fourteenth and early seventeenth centuries.]

Pyper, Rachel. “An Abridgement of Wyclif’s De Mandatis Divinis.” Medium Aevum 52:2 (1983): 306-10.

Rae, H.R. John Wycliffe—His Life and Writings. London, 1903.

Ramsay, J.H. “Chaucer and Wycliffe’s Bible.” Academy 22 (1882): 435-36. [Concludes that Chaucer uses the Wycliffite translation, but see also Holton, “Which Bible did Chaucer Use?”, which argues against this theory.]

Rankin, William Joseph. “The World Made Flesh: Wycliffite Hermeneutics, Pedagogy, and Polemic.” Ph.D. Diss, U of Minnesota, 2001. [From the abstract: “Although scholars have recently addressed the role of Wycliffism in the development of cultural and vernacular practice and in the sociopolitical climate of the later Middle Ages, few have attempted to view Wycliffite activity from the vantage of a cohesive ideological context. This dissertation seeks to examine and describe just such a context, focusing not so much on Wycliffite activity as it does on the rationale that undergirds that activity. I will argue that Wycliffite theory regarding the eucharist is the exegetical key to understanding their approach to pedagogical and polemical practice and to understanding the response of the church to Wycliffite heterodoxy, for it represents a fundamental point of conflict between Wycliffite and orthodox ideology. I will explore this ideological conflict through close readings of both Wycliffite texts and of the orthodox texts that responded to Wycliffism.”]

Ransom, M. “The Chronology of Wyclif’s English Sermons.” Research Studies of the State College of Washington 16 (1948): 67-114.

Rapallo, Umberto. “Ermeneutica e tradizione da Wyclif a Tyndale.” John Wyclif 81-102.

Raschko, Mary. “Common Ground for Contrasting Ideologies: The Texts and Contexts of A Short Reule of Lif.” Viator 40 (2009): 387-410. [Abstract:” This article examines the contents and manuscript contexts of the Lollard treatise ‘A Schort Reule of Lif’ to show how Lollards participated in mainstream religious trends and more orthodox Christians utilized a Lollard text that appealed to their common interests. 1 By providing regular times and subjects for prayer, along with advice for Christian living according to a three-estates model, ‘A Schort Reule of Lif’ appealed to a growing lay desire for more structured forms of devotion. The text survives in seven fifteenthcentury religious miscellanies, ranging from predominantly Lollard collections to those with primarily mainstream texts. Analysis of scribal revision, along with a new critical edition that records variation across all seven manuscripts, shows that most scribes copied the text without concern over its Lollard affiliation. Rather than reflect cautious attention to boundaries of “orthodox” belief, ‘A Schort Reule of Lif’ shows that common devotional interests could transcend matters of ideology.”]

“‘To þe worschipe of God and profite of his peple’: Lollard Sermons on the Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard.” Bose and Hornbeck 175-192. [This essay analyzes Middle English sermons on the Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard, pointing out common interpretations in Lollard and mainstream sermons, including Mirk’s Festial and Wimbledon’s Sermon, that encourage workers to remain within a three-estates model. Raschko examines how the Lollard writers direct this conventional social model to reformist ends.]

—. “Oon of Foure: Harmonizing Wycliffite and Pseudo-Bonaventuran Approaches to the Life of Christ.” Johnson and Westphall 341-373. [Raschko demonstrates that the Middle English gospel harmony Oon of Foure shares features with both Wycliffite translation and the Pseudo-Bonaventuran tradition. Examining the rearrangement of gospel sources and the varied manuscript contexts of Oon of Foure, she suggests that those who translated and copied this version of the gospels aimed to facilitate Christian devotion and conduct.]

Rashdall, Hastings. John Huss.” Stanhope Historical Essay, 1879. Oxford, 1879. [>1 mb]

—. The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. 2 vols. (in 3 books). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895. [Volume 2, pt. 2, contains a discussion of Oxford, with a brief mention of Wyclif. Note that this history here on Oxford during Wyclif’s time has been greatly updated and fleshed out in the volume by Catto and Evans entitled The History of the University of Oxford on Late Medieval Oxford. Rashdall’s history, though, remains helpful because in his notes and his Appendices he refers to many original documents. vol. 1 (10.2 mb); vol. 2, pt. 1 (4.3 mb); vol. 2, pt. 2 (8.3 mb)]

—. “John Wycliffe.” Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 21. Ed. L. Stephen and S. Lee. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1917. 1117-38. [Superseded in 2004 by the new entry by Anne Hudson and Anthony Kenny.]

Read, Stephen. “‘I Promise a Penny that I do not Promise’: The Realist/Nominalist Debate Over Intentional Propositions in Fourteenth Century British Logic and Its Contemporary Relevance.” The Rise of British Logic. Ed. P.O. Lewry. Toronto: Pontifical Institute, 1985. 335-59.

Reed, Alfred Hamish. A XV century ms. of the Wyclif-Purvey gospels: an introduction to the Dunedin Public Library’s copy. A.H. and A.W. Reed, 1956.

Reeves, Marjorie. The Influence of Prophecy in the Later Middle Ages. Oxford: Clarendon, 1969.

Reeves, W. Peters. “A Second MS. of Wyclif’s De Dominio Civili.” Modern Language Notes 50.2 (1935): 96-98. [On MS BN 15869, which also contains a copy of Marsilius of Padua’s Defensor Pacis.]

Reid, E.J.B. “Lollards at Colchester in 1414.” English Historical Review 29 (1914): 101-04. [>1 mb]

Reid, W. Stanford. “The Lollards in Pre-Reformation Scotland.” Church History: Studies in Christianity and Culture 11.4 (Dec. 1942): 269-283. [“The influence of the Lollard movement on the Scottish Reformation was pointed out by John Knox in the sixteenth century; and in the latter part of the nineteenth century the same point was stressed by the Historiographer Royal for Scotland, P. Hume Brown. Yet in spite of such illustrious advocacy, with one or two minor exceptions, little attention has been paid to the Wycliffite tradition in fifteenth century Scotland. It has generally been taken for granted that the Lollards were unimportant and possessed little or no influence. When all the information on the movement which we possess, however, is brought together, one cannot but feel that they had a greater influence on their own time than has heretofore been allowed: Not only did the early reformers consider them very important, but today also, in spite of predilections for economic interpretations of history, they must be regarded as one of the important sources of the Scottish Reformation.”]

Renna, Thomas. “Wyclif’s Attacks on the Monks.” Hudson and Wilks 267-80.

—. “Augustine’s De Civitate Dei in John Wyclif and Thomas More.” Collecteana Augustiniana. New York: Peter Lang, 1990. 261-71.

Rex, Richard. The Lollards. London: Palgrave, 2002. [This is a general introduction to Wyclif and Lollardy. It contains chapters on “Wyclif and his Theology,” the “Early diffusion of Lollardy,” “Survival and Revival,” and “From Lollardy to Protestantism.” In the process, “whilst endorsing the traditional view that Lollardy was indeed the lay face of Wycliffism, . . . Rex controversially argues that Wyclif and the Lollards were far less important than historians and literary critics have often claimed.”]

—. “New Light on Tyndale and Lollardy.” Reformation 8 (2003): 143-71.

—. “Thorpe’s Testament: a conjectural emendation.” Medium Aevum 74:1 (2005): 109-13.

—. “‘Which is Wyche?’ Lollardy and Sanctity in Lancastrian London.” Martyrs and Martyrdom in England, c. 1400-1700. Ed. Thomas Freeman and Thomas Maye. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2007. 88-106.

—. “Not a Lollard Mass After All?” The Journal of Theological Studies 62 (2011): 207-17. [Rex takes up the case of William Ramsbury discussed by Hudson in “A Lollard Mass” (see her essay in Lollards and their Books). From the abstract: “This article re-examines the record and argues that it has been misread. Far from being a Lollard minister, it suggests, Ramsbury was nothing but a confidence trickster. The form of liturgy he admitted to celebrating was not a product of theological editing but the performance of the visible and audible parts of the mass, with those parts customarily unseen and unheard simply omitted for economy of effort.”]

Rice, Nicole. “Devotional Literature and Lay Spiritual Authority: Imitatio Clerici in Book to a Mother.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 35 (2005): 187-216.

Rice, Nicole. Lay Piety and Religious Discipline in Middle English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2008. [Rice examines a series of texts for religious guidance which were adapted for life outside of the cloister. She notes that at the time that these models were being developed in the later fourteenth century Wyclif was critiquing the traditional orders and “advocated a radical form of identity between lay and priestly practice” (xii). Texts she examines most closely include the Abbey of the Holy Ghost; Fervor Amoris, an adaptation of Rolle’s Form of Living; The Life of Soul; Book to a Mother; and Walter Hilton’s Mixed Life. Her conclusion considers several fifteenth-century manuscripts containing these works to show how later compilers envisioned the use of these texts in the wake of Arundel.]

Richardson, H.G. “Heresy and the Lay Power under Richard II.” English Historical Review 51 (1936): 1-28.

—. “John Oldcastle in Hiding, August-October 1417.” English Historical Review 40 (1940): 432-8.

Robbins, R.H. “Dissent in Middle English Literature: The Spirit of (Thirteen) Seventy-Six.” Medievalia et Humanistica n.s. 9 (1979): 25-51.

Robertson, Edwin. John Wycliffe: Morningstar of the Reformation. Basingstoke: Marshall, 1984.

Robertson, Kellie. “Common Language and Common Profit.” The Postcolonial Middle Ages. Ed. Jeffrey J. Cohen. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000: 209-28. [Discussing especially the Bible, Robertson takes advantage of post-colonial theory “to analyze how English began to assert itself as a fit medium for intellectual work in late medieval Britain. This chapter argues that one of the ways the English book gained its presence was by laying claim to the public space through an alignment with the ‘common profit'” (210).]

Robson, J. A. Wyclif and the Oxford Schools: The Relation of the “Summa de Ente” to Scholastic Debates at Oxford in the Later Fourteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1961.

—. “John Wyclyf.” Reformers in Profile. Ed. B.A. Gerrish. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1967. 12-39.

Rogers, James E. Thorold. Historical Gleanings, a Series of Sketches: Wiklif, Laud, Wilkes, Horne Tooke. London: Macmillan, 1870. [3.7 mb]

Roth, Francis. The English Austin Friars 1249-1538. 2 vols. New York: Augustinian Historical Institute, 1961-66.

Rouse, Richard, and Mary. “The Franciscans and their Books: Lollard Accusations and the Franciscan Response.” Hudson and Wilks 364-84. Rpt. in Authentic Witnesses: Approaches to Medieval Texts and Manuscripts. Ed. Richard and Mary Rouse. Notre Dame: Notre Dame Univ. Press, 1991. 409-24.

Rubin, Miri. Corpus Christi: The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991.

—. “Small Groups: Identity and Solidarity in the Late Middle Ages.” Enterprise and Individuals in Fifteenth-Century England. Ed. Jennifer Kermode. Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton, 1991. 132-150.

Russell, Alexander. “Conciliarism and Heresy in England.” Gillespie and Ghosh 155-165. [To understand Gascoigne’s pessimism about reform, Russell asks whether “the English ever placed their hopes in the efficacy of the general council as a reforming body.” Focusing primarily on Netter’s Doctrinale, Russell claims that conciliarism too closely paralleled Wyclif’s (and Wycliffite’s) critiques of the papacy to have taken hold in England.]

Russell, H.G. “Lollard Opposition to Oaths by Creatures.” American Historical Review 51 (1946): 668-84.

Russell, J.B., ed. Religious Dissent in the Middle Ages. New York: John Wiley, 1971.

Russell-Smith, J.M. “Walter Hilton and a Tract in Defence of the Veneration of Images.” Dominican Studies 7 (1954): 180-214.

Salter, Elizabeth. “Manuscripts of Nicholas Love’s Myrrour of the Blessed Lyf of Jesu Christ and Related Texts in Middle English Prose.” Edwards and Pearsall 115-127.

Salter, Herbert E. John Wyclif, Canon of Lincoln.” English Historical Review 35 (1920): 98. [>1 mb]

Samuels, M.L. “The Dialects of MS Bodley 959.” Appendix 1 in item 111, vol. 5. Rpt. in Middle English Dialectology: Essays on Some Principles and Problems. Ed. A. McIntosh, M.L. Samuels, and M. Laing. Aberdeen: Aberdeen Univ. Press, 1989. 136-149.

Sanderson, Margaret H. B. “The Lollard Trail: Some Clues to the Spread of Pre-Protestant Religious Dissent in Scotland, and its Legacy.” Records of the Scottish Church History Society 33 (2003): 1-34.

Sankey, Robert W. “A rhetorical study of selected English sermons of John Wycliff.” Diss., Northwestern University, 1969.

Sargent, Michael G.. “Minor Devotional Writings.” Edwards and Pearsall 147-175.

—. “Censorship or Cultural Change? Reformation and Renaissance in the Spirituality of Late Medieval England.” Gillespie and Ghosh 55-72.
[With reference to Stephen J. Gould’s theory of biological evolution, as well as to the work of queer theorists Glenn Burger and Steven Kruger, Sargent applies a “preposterous” theory of history to late medieval spirituality, drawing attention to the complexity and diversity that defies binaristic descriptions of orthodoxy and heterodoxy.]

—. “What Do the Numbers Mean?” Design and Distribution of Late Medieval Manuscripts in England. Eds. Margaret Connolly and Lynne R. Mooney. York: York Medieval Press, 2008. 205-44. [With reference to the Wycliffite Bible and eight other late-medieval works, this essay discusses what conclusions can be drawn about the texts based on their number of surviving manuscripts.]

Scanlon, Larry. Narrative, Authority, and Power: The Medieval Exemplum and the Chaucerian Tradition. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 20. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994.

Scase, Wendy. Piers Plowman and the New Anticlericalism. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.

—. Reginald Pecock. Authors of the Middle Ages vol. 8.3. Aldershot: Variorum, 1996.

—. “Reginald Pecock, John Carpenter and John Colop’s ‘Common-Profit’ Books: Aspects of Book Ownership and Circulation in Fifteenth-Century London.” Medium Aevum 61.2 (1992): 261-74.

—. “‘Strange and Wonderful Bills’: Bill-Casting and Political Discourse in Late Medieval England.” Copeland, Lawton, and Scase 225-48.

—. “‘Heu! quanta desolatio Angliae praestatur“: A Wycliffite Libel and the Naming of Heretics, Oxford 1382.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 19-36.

—. “The Audience and Framers of the Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards.” Barr and Hutchinson 283-301. [Scase takes issue with the received notion concerning the Twelve Conclusions, that its posting on the doors of Westminster Hall in 1395 signaled a crisis in the development of Lollardy and its impact on a knightly audience. She indicates that there are, in fact, no parliamentary or gentry reactions. Reaction instead came from the Church, and she takes Roger Dymmok’s work as an example. “If for the Wycliffites,” she concludes, “the gesture was designed to express the case for reform in a politically meaningful way, the clerical audience was equally anxious to read it as evidence that supported the case for the judicial execution of heretics” (301).]

—. “‘Let him be kept in most strait prison’: Lollards and the Epistola Luciferi.” Freedom of Movement in the Middle Ages: Proceedings of the 2003 Harlaxton Symposium. Ed. Peregrine Horden. Donington: Shaun Tyas, 2007. 57-72.

—. “Lollardy.” Bagchi and Steinmetz 16-21.

—. Literature and Complaint in England, 1272-1553. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2007. [This book “argues that texts ranging from political libels and pamphlets to laments of the unrequited lover constitute a literature shaped by the new and crucial role of complaint in the law courts. She describes how complaint took on central importance in the development of institutions such as Parliament and the common law in later medieval England, and argues that these developments shaped a literature of complaint within and beyond the judicial process. She traces the story of the literature of complaint from the earliest written bills and their links with early complaint poems in English, French, and Latin, through writings associated with political crises of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, to the libels and petitionary pamphlets of Reformation England. A final chapter, which includes analyses of works by Chaucer, Hoccleve, and related writers, proposes far-reaching revisions to current histories of the arts of composition in medieval England.”]

Scattergood, V. John. Politics and Poetry in the Fifteenth Century. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1972.

—. “Pierce the Ploughman’s Crede: Lollardy and Texts.” Aston and Richmond 77-94.

—. “The Date of Sir John Clanvowe’s The Two Ways and the “Reinvention of Lollardy.'” Medium Ævum 79.1 (2010): 116-120. [Starts with a mention of Clanvowe’s text in Cole’s Literature and Heresy in the Age of Chaucer (on 50-54) in which Cole, dating the text to the mid- to late 1380s, argues that it comprises part of the contemporary re-invention of lollardy. Scattergood argues that Cole probably dates the text too early.]

—. ” Erasing Oldcastle: Some Literary Reactions to the Lollard Rising of 1414.” Heresy and Orthodoxy in Early English Literature, 1350-1680. Ed. Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin and John Flood. Dublin: Four Courts, 2010. 49-74. Rpt. in Occasions for Writing: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature, Politics and Society. Dublin: Four Courts, 2010. 136-62. [Scattergood examines ways in which, unlike other lollards, Oldcastle “was a special case. . . . His heresy was assumed to be not simply a dereliction of his duties towards his church, but a dereliction of the demands of his class” (56).]

Schaff, D. John Huss: His Life and Teachings after 500 Years. New York, 1915. [This generally academic biography of Huss seeks to place him within contemporary Christian history of Europe. (5.4 mb)]

Scherb, Victor. “Conception, Flies, and Heresy in Skelton’s ‘Replycacion.'” Medium Aevum 62 (1993): 51-60.

Schirmer, Elizabeth. “Orthodoxy, Textuality, and the ‘Tretys’ of Margery Kempe.” Journalx 1.1 (Autumn, 1996): 31-55.

—. “‘Trewe Men’: Pastoral Masculinity in Lollard Polemic.” Masculinities and Femininities in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. Fred Kiefer. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2009.  117-130. [This essay argues that the Lollards engaged in a sustained retroping of marriage and sexual sin that sought to replace traditional models of clerical masculinity, grounded in ordination and signified by celibacy, with a new model of pastoral masculinity, grounded in the Word and signified by marriage.]

—. “William Thorpe’s Narrative Theology.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 31 (2009): 267-299. [“Thorpe’s Testimony, I shall argue, sidesteps the textual strategies that had come to define both sides of the Lollard controversy. . . . In particular, Thorpe turns to narrative . . . in order to enact his intertwined theological and political projects.”]

—.  “Canon Wars and Outlier Manuscripts: Gospel Harmony in the Lollard Controversy.” Huntington Library Quarterly 73 (2010): 1-36. This essay reads the Lollard controversy as a canon war, that is, a contest between highly standardized textual programs, designed to enact opposing models of the church. It analyzes two outlier manuscripts of texts central to this canon war: Huntington Library MSS HM 501, containing Oon of Foure, and HM 149, of Nicholas Love’s Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ. Lollard and anti-Lollard scriptural canons provided materials for innovative vernacular projects such as these, which exceed the totalizing ambitions of the controversy’s central players.]

Schlauch, Margaret. “A Polish Vernacular Eulogy of Wycliff.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 8 (1958): 53-73.

Schmalstieg, William. R. “Martynas Mažvydas and John Wycliffe: An English Connection?” Lituanus 44.1 (Spring, 1998): 5-37. [“The purpose of this brief note is to suggest that the influence of the English religious reformer Wycliffe might be discerned in the First Lithuanian Catechism. Probably direct influence cannot be proven, but at least there is a striking parallelism between Martynas Mažvydas and John Wycliffe in the rendering of the Decalogue.” Schmalsteig examines this parallelism via a linguistic analysis.]

Schofield, A. “An English Version of Some Events in Bohemia During 1434.” Slavonic and East European Review 47.99 (1964): 312-31.

—. “England and the Council of Basel.” Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum 5 (1973): 1-117.

Scoufos, A.L. “Nashe, Jonson, and the Oldcastle Problem.” Modern Philology 65 (1968): 307-24.

Sedlak, J. M. Jan Hus. Prague, 1915.

Sell, Alan. “John Wyclif (d. 1384): Anniversary Reflections.” Reformed World 38.5 (1985): 290-300.

Sergeant, Lewis. John Wyclif: Last of the Schoolmen and First of the English Reformers. Heroes of the Nations. New York: G.P. Putnam’s, 1893. Rpt. New York: AMS, 1978. [One of the more complete quincentary biographies, but still fairly derivative. (4.1 mb)]

Shaffern, Robert W. The Penitent’s Treasury: Indulgences in Latin Christendom, 1175-1375. Scranton: Scranton UP, 2007. [While this book does not discuss Wyclif or his contemporaries directly, it gives a very helpful discussion of many of this issues, such as the varieties and effects of different kinds of pardons, which play out in the texts of the later fourteenth century.]

Shagan, Ethan. Popular Politics and the English Reformation. Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. [According to Shagan, “This study of popular responses to the English Reformation analyzes how ordinary people received, interpreted, debated, and responded to religious change. It differs from other studies by arguing that the subject cannot be understood simply by asking theological questions about people’s beliefs, but must be understood by asking political questions about how they negotiated with state power. Therefore, it concerns political as well as religious history, since it asserts that, even at the popular level, political and theological processes were inseparable in the sixteenth century.”]

Shepherd, Stephen. “A Wycliffite Bible Possibly Owned by Sir Henry Spelman and Ole Worm.” Notes and Queries 55.3: (Sept. 2008): 269-273. [“The article explores the probable provenance of MS 7 at Bridewell Library in Dallas, Texas. The manuscript is a fifteenth century English Codex which was bound in the earlier decades of the seventeenth century. The binding encompasses three Middle English texts: a Wycliffite New Testament, a lectionary for Dominicals and Ferials, and a text on planting and grafting.”]

Shettle, G.T. John Wycliffe, of Wycliffe, and Other Essays. Leeds: Jackson, 1922.

Shogimen, Takahashi. “Wyclif’s Ecclesiology and Political Thought.” Levy 199-240.

Siberry, Elizabeth. “Criticism of Crusading in Fourteenth-Century England.” Crusade and Settlement. Ed. Peter W. Edbury. Cardiff: Univ. College Cardiff Press, 1985. 127-34.

Siebert, Georg. “Untersuchungen über An Apology for Lollard Doctrines, einen Wycliffe zugeschriebenen traktat.” Dissertation. Albertus-Universität zu Königsberg, 1905. [>1 mb]

Simon, H. “Chaucer a Wicliffite: An Essay on Chaucer’s Parson and Parson’s Tale.” Essays on Chaucer Part 3. Chaucer Society 2nd. Series 16, 1876. 227-92. [ Simon (1.2 mb)]

Simonetta, Stefano. “Una singolare alleanza: Wyclif e Lancaster.” [“A Singular Alliance: John Wyclif and the Duke of Lancaster: A Study of Ecclesial Politics in the 14th-Century English Church.”] Studi Medievali 36.2 (1995): 797-837.

—. “John Wyclif between Utopia and Plan.” Société et Église: Textes et discussions dans les universités de l’Europe centrale pendant le moyen âge tardif. Ed. Sophie Wlodek. Turnhout: Brepols, 1995. 65-86.

—. “La maturazione del progetto riformatore di Giovanni Wyclif: dal De Civili Dominio al De Officio Regis.” Medioevo 22 (1996): 225-58.

—. “Una riforma prematura? Realizzabilita del progetto di Wyclif.” Pensiero Politico: Rivista di Storia della Idee Politiche e Sociali 29.3 (1996): 343-73.

—. “Two Parallel Trains of Anti-Hierocratic Thought in the Fourteenth Century: Marsilius of Padua and John Wyclif.” Rivista Di Storia Della Philosophia 1997 (52.1): 91-110.

—. “The Concept of Two Churches in the Religious Philosophy of the English Reformer, John Wyclif.” Studi Medievali 40 (1999): 119-37.

—. “Wyclif e la rivolta del 1381.” Brocchieri and Simonetta 153-79.

—. “Governo ideale, potere e riforma nella riflessione di John Wyclif.” Archives d’histoire doctrinale et littéraire du moyen âge 71 (2004): 109-28.

—. “Libertà del volere e prescienza divina nella teologia filosofica di Wyclif.” Rivista Di Storia Della Philosophia 61.1 (2006): 193-207.

—. “Verso l’Apocalisse, a piccoli passi. Escatologia e riforma in John Wyclif.” L’Apocalisse nel Medioevo. Ed. Rossana Guglielmetti. Florence: SISMEL edizioni del Galluzzo, 2011. 595-616.

Simpson, James. “Saving Satire after Arundel’s Constitutions: John Audelay’s ‘Marcol and Solomon.'” Barr and Hutchinson 387-404. [As with Havens (see above) Simpson attends to the “grey area” between heterodox and orthodox texts, considering the problem of self-censorship under Arundel. “‘Marcol and Solomon’ provides an interesting countercase to the consensus position [that self-censorship increased] because it provides evidence that both confirms and resists that consensus” (388). Simpson argues that Audelay “attempts to preserve a space for orthodox yet trenchant vernacular ecclesiological satire and theology in unpropitious circumstances. My secondary argument is that Audelay harnesses the energies of Piers Plowman in his effort to preserve such a discursive space” (389-90).]

—. “Orthodoxy’s Image Trouble: Images In and After Arundel’s Constitutions.” Gillespie and Ghosh, 91-113. [Simpson introduces a critique of images in Capgrave’s Life of St. Katherine as an occasion to investigate overlapping sentiments about images in orthodox and heterodox texts. With reference to Lollard writings and trial records as well as Dives and Pauper, Lydgate’s Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, and Pecock’s Repressor, he argues that “orthodoxy shares with heterodoxy a distrust of illiterate reception of images.”]

Skeat, W.W. “On the Dialect of Wyclif’s Bible.” Transations of the Philological Society (1895-8): 212-19. [ Skeat (>1 mb)]

Skinner, Quentin. The Foundations of Modern Political Thought. 2 Vols. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1978.

—. “Political Philosophy.” The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy. Ed. C.B. Schmitt and Q. Skinner. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990. 395-452.

Šmahel, František. “‘Doctor Evangelicus super omnes evangelistas’: Wyclif’s Fortune in Hussite Bohemia.” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 43 (1970): 16-34.

—. “Hus und Wyclif: ‘Opinio Media de Universalibus in Re.'” Studia Mediewistyczne 22.1 (1983): 531-37.

—. La révolution hussite, une anomalie historique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1985.

—. Husitská revoluce. 4 Vols. 2nd ed. Prague, 1995.

—. “Literacy and Heresy in Hussite Bohemia.” Biller and Hudson 237-54.

—. “The Acta of the Constance Trial of Master Jerome of Prague.” Barr and Hutchinson 323-34. [This is a preliminary study of the Acta of Jerome’s trial, which is “the only source for learning about the Reformist activities not only of this Wycliffite, but also of his radical circle in the years 1409-14” (324), of which there seem to exist separate collections. Šmahel gives an annotated list of the various earliest manuscripts of official Acta.]

—. “The English Rising of 1381, Wyclif and Lollards in the Czech Point of View.” In Confession and Nation in the Era of Reformations. Central Europe in Comparative Perspective. Ed. Eva Doležalová and Jaroslav Pánek. Praha (Prague): Historický ústav, 2011. 35-52.

Smalley, Beryl. “John Wyclif’s Postilla super totam Bibliam.” Bodleian Library Record 5 (1953): 186-205.

—. “Problems of Exegesis in the Fourteenth Century.” Antike und Orient im Mittelalter. Ed. Paul Wilpert. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1962. 266-74.

—. “Wyclif’s Postilla on the Old Testament and his Principium.” Southern 253-96.

—. The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1964.

—. “The Bible and Eternity: John Wyclif’s Dilemma.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 27 (1964): 73-89. Rpt. in Studies in Medieval Thought and Learning from Abelard to Wyclif. Ed. Beryl Smalley. London: Hambledon, 1981. 399-415.

Smart, Stefan J. “John Foxe and ‘The Story of Richard Hun, Martyr.'” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 37.1 (1986): 1-14.

Smeeton, Donald D. Lollard Themes in the Reformation Theology of William Tyndale. Kirksville, MO: Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers, 1986.

—. “Holy Living and the Holy Ghost: A Study in Wycliffite Pneumatology.” Evangelical Quarterly 59 (Apr. 1987): 139-46.

—. “The Wycliffite Choice: Man’s Law or God’s.” William Tyndale and the Law. Ed. John Dick and A. Richardson. Kirksville, MO: Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers, 1994. 31-40.

Smith, Herbert. “Syntax der Wycliffe-Purveyschen Übersetzung und der ‘Authorised Version’ der vier Evangelien.” Anglia 30 (1907): 413-500.

Smith, Herbert M. “Lollardy.” Church Quarterly Review 119 (1934): 30-60.

Smith, Jennifer Anh-Thu Tran. “Reginald Pecock and Vernacular Theology in Pre-Reformation England.” Ph.D. Diss., UCLA, 2012. [From the abstract: ” The first half of the dissertation is dedicated to the language and style of Pecock’s works. It includes a systematic survey of Pecock’s entire extant lexicon gathered from five source texts and the implications of Pecock’s many new word formations, their etymologies and their types. . . . The second half of the dissertation is the first systematic analysis of Pecock’s pedagogical system, one which he terms the “Four Tables of God’s Law” and saw as a better teaching alternative than the Ten Commandments. It compares Pecock’s techniques to his contemporaries, both orthodox and heretical, lay and religious. Fundamentally, the project moves from specific issues dealing with Pecock’s language use and progressively broadens in scope and analysis to situate Pecock and his writings at the transition between the Medieval and Early Modern eras.”]

Smith, K.S. “An English Conciliarist?: Thomas Netter of Walden at the Councils of Pisa and Constance.” Popes, Teachers, and Canon Law in the Middle Ages. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1989. 290-9.

Smith, Martin L. “Lollardism in the Diocese of Hereford from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century.” Woolhope Naturalists’ Field Club Papers, 1930.

Smith, Paul. “Could the Gospel Harmony Oon of Foure Represent an Intermediate Version of the Wycliffite Bible?” Studia Neophilologica 80.2 (Dec. 2008): 160-176. [“The similarity between EV translations and OF [Oon of Foure] places the question of the harmony translator’s familiarity with the gospel versions beyond doubt; existing Bible texts must have been consulted in the making of OF. But sufficient unique characteristics of the text can be found which suggest that the work was a fresh piece of translation. . . . In order to establish the independence of the OF from existing texts it is necessary to concentrate on instances of vocabulary in OF not obviously copied from EV or LV and on aspects of the harmony in which the text is even more idiomatic than that in LV.” From an analysis of this, Smith concludes that “Oon of Foure represents an important and unique biblical version intermediate between the literalisms of EV and the modernisms of LV.”]

Snape, M.G. “Some Evidence of Lollard Activity in the Diocese of Durham in the Early Fifteenth Century.” Archaeologia Aeliana, 4th ser., 39 (1961): 355-61.

Solopova, Elizabeth. “Manuscript Evidence for the Patronage, Ownership and Use of the Wycliffite Bible.” Poleg and Light 333-49.

Somerset, Fiona. “Vernacular Argumentation in the Testimony of William Thorpe.” Mediaeval Studies 58 (1996): 207-41.

—. “Answering the Twelve Conclusions: Dymmok’s Halfhearted Gestures Towards Publication.” Aston and Richmond 52-76.

—. Clerical Discourse and Lay Audience in Late Medieval England. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998.

—. “‘As just as is a squyre’: The Politics of ‘Lewed Translacion’ in Chaucer’s Summoner’s Tale.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 21 (1999): 187-207.

—. “Mark him wel for he is on of tho’: Training the ‘Lewed’ Gaze to Discern Hypocrisy.” English Literary History 68 (2001): 315-34.

—. “Excitative Speech: Theories of Emotive Response from Richard Fitzralph to Margery Kempe.” The Vernacular Spirit. Ed. Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Duncan Robertson, and Nancy Bradley Warren. London: Palgrave, 2002. 59-79. [Citing arguments over speech which excites emotions, especially in the laity, Somerset notes that a distinction seems to exist between educated and lay or vernacular views of such speech: “while educated writers describing lay excitation seem only to be able to associate it with social disruption and dissent of a sort they (nearly always) censure in the strongest terms, Margery envisages a way in which lay devotional emotion may be socially beneficial” (73).

—. “Expanding the Langlandian Canon: Radical Latin and the Stylistics of Reform.” The Yearbook of Langland Studies 17 (2003): 73-92. [This article, a contribution to a special section, “Langland and Lollardy,” argues that certain Wycliffite authors resemble Langland in their playful translations of Latin debates, even those debates that contain, from the perspective of Wycliffite authors, erroneous views. Somerset suggests that this resemblance points to a “Langlandian mode,” which is not, as some scholars would have it, merely a “flattening and narrowing of the poem’s implications” (91) but rather an attempt to “foreground perceived commonalities of background or training” (74), and especially a shared complex attitude to Latin learning.]

—. “Here, There, and Everywhere? Wycliffite Conceptions of the Eucharist and Chaucer’s ‘Other’ Lollard Joke.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 127-138.

—. “Professionalizing Translation at the Turn of the Fifteenth Century: Ullerston’s Determinacio, Arundels Constitutiones.” Somerset and Watson 145-57. [Somerset reconsiders the impact of Arundel’s Constitutions (using the original Latin version rather than Foxe’s translation) and re-evaluates the conclusions of Nicholas Watson’s influential article “Censorship and Cultural Change” (Speculum 1995). She contends that Arundel is responding to an academic debate between competing orthodoxies, rather than between heresy and orthodoxy, in which Ullerston is a participant — and that the Conclusions are far more concerned with regulating the institutions of late medieval education, especially in Oxford, than with the laity.]

—. “Wycliffite Spirituality.” Barr and Hutchinson 375-86. [“By examining the close relationship between Wycliffites and their contemporaries . . . I shall consider whether there may have been such a thing as a distinctively Wycliffite spirituality, one that would have complemented their distinctive attitudes to the authority of Scripture” (376). Somerset develops her argument by examining Richard Rolle and especially his Form of Living, considering the “much more than coincidental similarity” (379) to Wyclif’s De Amore siue ad Quinque quaestiones and its vernacular translation, specifically regarding the appearance of the same “five questions.”]

—. “Wycliffite Prose.” Edwards (2004) 195-214. [Introduces available sources, and the style and genre of vernacular Wycliffism.]

—. “‘Eciam mulier’: Women in Lollardy and the Problem of Sources.” Voices In Dialogue: Reading Women In The Middle Ages. Ed. Linda Olson and Katherine Kerby-Fulton. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame Press, 2005. 245-60. [Somerset notes that Lollard women were portrayed by orthodox opponents as either gullible, lascivious, or too feeble of wit to substantially contribute to religious life, fact which demonstrate Lollard error when men like Brut argued for women. The fears Somerset notes, by the way, resonate directly with those noted by Thomas in Bohemia (see below). But where then, Somerset asks, are these women? Brut’s claims for “women’s capacities,” she argues, “rather than providing any sort of evidence for support of women’s learning, . . . can helps us to understand why Lollardy was never a hospitable ground for the growth of extraordinary learning among women” (248). Somerset’s article goes on to consider two of the disputations from Trefnant’s Register in this light. Note the response to this essay by Kerby-Fulton, above.]

—. Feeling Like Saints: Lollard Writings after Wyclif. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014. [From the publisher: “While lollardy has attracted much attention in recent years, much of what we think we know about this English religious movement is based on records of heresy trials and anti-lollard chroniclers. In Feeling Like Saints, Fiona Somerset demonstrates that this approach has limitations. A better basis is the five hundred or so manuscript books from the period (1375–1530) containing materials translated, composed, or adapted by lollard writers themselves. These writings provide rich evidence for how lollard writers collaborated with one another and with their readers to produce a distinctive religious identity based around structures of feeling.]

—.“Textual Transmission, Variance, and Religious Identity among Lollard Pastoralia.” Van Dussen and Soukup 71-104.

Spade, Paul V. “The Problem of Universals and Wyclif’s Alleged ‘Ultrarealism.’” Vivarium 43.1 (2005): 111-23. [This essay is in the same issue as Cesalli’s essay, above, dedicated to medieval realism. According to the author’s abstract, “This paper attempts a preliminary assessment of that judgment and argues that, pending further study, we have no reason to accept it. It is certainly true that Wyclif is extremely vocal and insistent about his realism, but it is not obvious that the actual content of his view is especially extreme. The paper distinguishes two common medieval notions of a universal, the Aristotelian/ Porphyrian one in terms of predication and the Boethian one in terms of being metaphysically common to many. On neither approach does Wyclif ‘s theory of universals postulate new and non-standard entities besides those recognized by more usual versions of realism. Again pending further study, neither do Wyclif’s views appear to assign philosophically extreme or novel roles to the entities he does recognize as universal. On the contrary, by at least one measure, his theory of universals is less extreme than Walter Burley’s, as Wyclif himself observes. For Wyclif, the universal is numerically identical with its singulars, but numerical identity is governed by something weaker than the indiscernibility of identicals.”]

Spencer, Helen Leith. English Preaching in the Late Middle Ages. Oxford: Clarendon, 1993.

—. “The Fortunes of a Lollard Sermon Cycle in the Later Fifteenth Century.” Mediaeval Studies 48 (1986): 352-396.

—. “Friar Richard ‘Of Both Sexes.'” Barr and Hutchinson 13-31. [On the heresy of Dominican Richard Helmsley, condemned in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1385. Spencer includes editions of the documents relevant to his case.]

Spinka, Matthew. Jan Hus and the Czech Reform. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1941.

—. “John Wyclif, Advocate of Radical Reform.” Spinka 21-31.

—. “Paul Kravař and Lollard-Hussite Relations.” Church History 25.1 (Mar., 1956): 16-26.

—. Jan Hus’s Concept of the Church. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1964.

—. Jan Hus: A Biography. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1968.

Spruyt, Joke. “The Unity of Semantics and Ontology: Wyclif’s Treatment of the fallacia accidentis.” Vivarium 46.1 (2008): 24-58. [“This paper deals with John Wyclif ‘s account of the fallacia accidentis. To a certain extent Wyclif ‘s explanations fit in with Aristotle’s understanding of language. Aristotle recognises that we can talk about substances in many different ways; we can introduce them by using ‘substantial’ names, but also by using names derived from the substances’ accidental features. The substances are the ultimate foundation of all these expressions. This idea in itself is not opposed to a conceptualist account of language. John Buridan uses Aristotle’s principle of categorisation to show how language works, but for him the activity of categorising things is to be explained in terms of our mental activities only. Wyclif, on the other hand, reads much into the requirement that all our linguistic distinctions should have their basis in extramental reality: our conceptualisations not only pertain to individual substances, but also parallel their distinct ontic layers.”]

Spufford, P. “The Comparative Mobility and Immobility of Lollard Descendants in Early Modern England.” Spufford 309-31.

Stacey, John. “The Character of John Wyclif.” London Quarterly and Holborn Review 184 (1959): 136-39.

—. “The Piety of John Wyclif.” The Expository Times 73 (1962): 327-29.

—. John Wyclif and Reform. London: Lutterworth, 1964.

—. “John Wyclif and the Ministry of the Word.” London Quarterly and Holborn Review 190 (January 1965): 50-54.

—. “Wyclif and the Preaching Art.” Expository Times 93 (1982): 139-42.

—. “John Wyclif as Theologian.” Expository Times 101 (1990): 134-41.

—. “Six Wyclif Sermons.” Epworth Review 24 (1997): 86-92.

Stackhouse, Ian. “The Native Roots of Early English Reformation Theology.” Evangelical Quarterly 66 (1994): 19-35.

Staley, Lynn. Languages of Power in the Age of Richard II. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005. [Staley’s fascinating work on the relationship between history and literature in the later middle ages turns here to reading, as she says, “the ways in which late-fourteenth-century English writers used, analyzed, and altered the languages of power. Moreover, I seek to understand the nuances and purposes of courtly address by reading literary works within the contexts of historical and explicitly political texts that sought to organize and define the events of the age and by using literary works to provide a context for those events we call ‘history.’ This book isolates and traces what is an actual search for a language of power during the reign of Richard II and scrutinizes the ways in which Chaucer and other writers participated in these attempts to articulate the concept of princely power” (ix). Lollardy and Wyclif figure at several places in Staley’s argument, notably in her chapter on “Inheritances and Translations,” in how the heresy and Wyclif’s and other Lollard writings are used and rewritten during Richard’s reign.]

Stanbury, Sarah.”Visualizing.” A Companion to Chaucer. Ed. Peter Brown. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000. 459-79. [Stanbury situates Chaucer’s representation of images within the Lollard image debate.]

—. “The Vivacity of Images: St. Katherine, Knighton’s Lollards, and the Breaking of Idols.” Dimmick, Simpson, and Zeeman 131-50. [Stanbury begins with Knighton’s description of the 1382 Lollard burning of an statue of St. Katherine to argue for a materialist consideration of “the relationship between the image debate as it developed in later fourteenth-century England and the circulation or entailment of images as forms of property. . . . How [Stanbury asks] was the drama of the image shaped by contemporary discourses about images as goods?” (135). Stanbury uses this framework to describe many distinctions between Lollard and orthodox views of images, and the assumptions behind them which fueled the debate.]

—. The Visual Object of Desire in Late Medieval England. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

Stein, I.H. “The Wyclif Manuscript in Florence.” Speculum 5 (1930): 95-97. [This is about MS Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana Plutei.19.33 which is now available on-line.]

—. “Two Notes on Wyclif.” Speculum 6 (1931): 465-68. [On two Italian mss: Bibl. Vat Lat 4313 and Pavia Univ. 311 (139 G. 46), both of which contain copies of Wyclif’s Latin works; and mss of the De Potestate Pape.]

—. “The Vatican Manuscript Borghese 29 and the Tractate De Versuciis Anti-Christi.” English Historical Review 47 (1932): 465-8.

—. “Another ‘Lost’ Chapter of Wyclif’s Summa de Ente.” Speculum 8.2 (Apr. 1933): 254-55. [see also under S. Harrison Thomson on the Bibliography of Primary Sources under the Works of John Wyclif.]

Steiner, Emily. “Inventing Legality: Documentary Culture and Lollard Preaching.” The Letter of the Law: Legal Practice and Literary Production in Medieval England. Ed. Emily Steiner and Candace Barrington. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 2002. 185-201. [Steiner concentrates on the so-called “Long” and “Short Charters of Christ.” She argues that “late medieval preachers and polemicists used documents, both fictive and real, to challenge orthodox notions of textual authority and to produce an oppositional rhetoric. . . . legal documents came to represent . . . not simply the excesses of ecclesiastical bureaucracies and royal courts but the very relations of textuality,” thereby offering “a set of tropes to discuss the rhetorical, evidentiary, and foundational claims of official texts” (186-87).]

—. “Lollardy and the Legal Document.” Somerset, Havens, and Pitard 155-174.

—. Documentary Culture and the Making of English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. [This book argues that documentary culture (including charters, testaments, patents and seals) enabled writers to think in new ways about the conditions of textual production in late Medieval England. Steiner explains that the distinctive rhetoric, material form, and ritual performance of legal documents offered writers of Chaucer’s generation and the generation succeeding him a model of literary practice. The study covers a wide variety of medieval texts including sermons and trial records, Piers Plowman, Mum and the Sothsegger, devotional lyrics, Guillaume de Deguileville’s pilgrimage trilogy, and TheBook of Margery Kempe.]

Steuer, Jennifer. “Religiöse Strömungen der Zeit im Ackermann aus Böhmen: Johann Wiclef und sein Einfluss auf das mittelalterliche Streitgespräch.” Neophilologus 93.3 (July, 2009): 471-479. [From the abstract: “In Forschungen zum ‘Ackermann aus Böhmen’ (1930), Alois Bernt writes that every literary work is influenced by the time in which it was written. . . . A comparison of [Johann Wiclef’s] theses and Johannes von Tepl’s disputation demonstrates that the dialogue between the ‘Ackermann’ and death shows Wiclef’s influence. This is supported as the writer disregards the invocation of the saints and the worship of the Virgin Mary in his disputation. In addition, he uses John Wiclef’s key term—the right to property—as an interpretation of the right to possess one’s own life.”]

Stevenson, Joseph. The Truth about John Wyclif, His Life, Writings, and Opinions. London: Burns and Oates, 1885. [One of several derivative biographies published to mark the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death.]

Stokes, George. The Lollards: or, Some Account of the Witnesses for the Truth in Great Britain . . . . London: Religious Tract Society, 1838. [6.4 mb]

Storrs, Richard. John Wycliffe and the First English Bible: An Oration. New York: Anson D.F. Randolph, 1880. [>1 mb]

Strohm, Paul. Social Chaucer. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1989.

—. “Chaucer’s Lollard Joke: History and the Textual Unconscious.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 17 (1995): 23-42.

—. “Counterfeiters, Lollards, and Lancastrian Unease.” Scase, Copeland, and Lawton 31-58.

—. England’s Empty Throne: Usurpation and the Language of Legitimation, 1399-1422. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1998.

—. Theory and the Premodern Text. Medieval Cultures 26. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Sturges, Robert S. “Anti-Wycliffite Commentary in Richardson MS 22.” Harvard Library Bulletin 34.4 (Fall, 1986): 380-395.

Summers, Joanna. Late Medieval Prison Writing and the Politics of Autobiography. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004. [Along with Usk, James I, Charles d’Orléans, and George Ashby, Summers in one chapter discusses two Wycliffite writers, William Thorpe and Richard Wyche. “The following chapters,” Summers says in her introduction, “examine how each author’s predicament of persecution and imprisonment precipitates and even prescribes the politial nature of his literary self-portrayal” (3). Within the chapter on the heretics, she argues that “both texts construct textual identities whose exemplary behavior in the face of imprisonment and persecution is designed to encourage other Lollards in the firmness of their beliefs, and convince [them] of the corruption of the Church. . . . Wyche and Thorpe construct a favourable literary identity through intertextual reference, notably by inviting comparisons with hagiographic figures. Furthermore, the texts are designed to oppose and counter the printed word and propoganda of the Church with Lollardy’s own authoritative texts” (112).

Summers, William H. Our Lollard Ancestors. London: National Council of Evangelical Free Churches, 1904.

—. The Lollards of the Chiltern Hills: Glimpses of English Dissent in the Middle Ages. London: Francis Griffiths, 1906. [2 mb]

Summerson, Henry. “An English Bible and Other Books Belonging to Henry IV.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 79.1 (1997): 109-15.

Sutherland, Annie. “The Chastising of God’s Children: A Neglected Text.” Barr and Hutchinson 353-73. [This is a popular text, both in complete and re-compiled forms. Arguing for a later date, nearer to the 1408 than 1382, than its editors Bazire and Colledge considered, Sutherland reads the text attending to the fact that the text was written “at a time of acute anxiety regarding the translation of the Bible and the role of the vernacular in theological discourse” (354). Sutherland illuminates the complicated and very self-aware stand the work’s author takes on the problem of translation.]

Swanson, R.N. Church and Society in Late Medieval England. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989.

—. Religion and Devotion in Europe, c. 1215-c. 1515. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995.

—. “A Small Library for Pastoral Care and Spiritual Instruction in Late Medieval England.” Journal of the Early Book Society 5 (2002): 99-120. [Swanson writes about books owned by Pott Shrigley Chapel in Cheshire. One book not in the chapel’s inventory but linked to it by inscription is BL Add. 41175, the Glossed Gospel commentary on Matthew and Mark. The volume was endowed to the chapel but it isn’t known whether it actually resided there. Swanson observes that the volume “would provide a channel for Wycliffite ideas to spread in the area; but that the volume was meant to join the chapel possessions suggests that it was not seen . . . as an overtly heretical or threatening text” (107).]

—. “Will the Real Margery Kempe Please Stand Up!” Wood, Women and Religion 141-65.

Swiderska, H.M. “A Polish Follower of John Wyclif in the Fifteenth Century.” University of Birmingham Historical Journal 6 (1957-58): 88-92.

Szittya, Penn R. The Antifraternal Tradition in Medieval Literature. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1986.

Talbert, Ernst W. “The Date of the Composition of the English Wycliffite Collection of Sermons.” Speculum 12 (1937): 464-74.

—. “A Fifteenth-Century Lollard Sermon Cycle.” University of Texas Studies in English 19 (1939): 5-30.

—. “A Note on the Wycliffite Bible Translation.” The University of Texas, Studies in English 20 (1940): 29-38.

Tanner, Norman P. The Church in Late Medieval Norwich 1370-1532. Studies and Texts 66. Toronto: Pontifical Institute, 1984.

—. “Penances Imposed on Kentish Lollards by Archbishop Warham 1511-12.” Aston and Richmond 229-249.

—. “Lollard Women (act. c. 1390–c.1520).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004. [This entry includes information on Anna Palmer (1393–1394), Christina More (1412–1414), Margery Baxter (1428–1429), Hawise Mone (1428–1430), Joan Washingby (d. 1512), Agnes Grebill (d. 1511), and Alice Colins (1521).]

—. “White, William (d. 1428).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn., May 2008.

—. The Church in the Later Middle Ages. I.B. Tauris history of the Christian Church, vol. 3. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2008. [The section on “Heresy and Dissent” includes chapters on “Cathars and Waldensians,” “John Wyclif and the Lollards,” “Jan Hus and the Hussites,” and “Inquisition and the prosecution of heresy.”]

—. “Wyclif and Companions: Naming and Describing Dissenters in the Ecumenical and General Councils.” Clark, Jurkowski, and Richmond 131-141.

Tatlock, J.S.P. “Chaucer and Wycliffe.” Modern Philology 14 (Sept. 1916): 257-68.

Tatnall, Edith Comfort. “John Wyclif and Ecclesia Anglicana.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 30 (1969): 19-43.

—. “The Condemnation of John Wyclif at the Council of Constance.” Councils and Assemblies. Ed. G.J. Cuming and D. Baker. Studies in Church History 7. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1971. 209-18.

Tavard, George H. Holy Writ or Holy Church. London: Burns and Oates, 1959.

Taylor, Andrew. “‘To Pley a Pagyn of the Devyl’: Turpiloquium and the Scurrae in Early Drama.” Medieval English Theatre 11:1-2 (1989): 162-74.

—. “Translation, Censorship, Authorship and the Lost Work of Reginald Pecock.” In The Politics of Translation in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Ed. Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Luise von Flotow, and Daniel Russell. Ottawa: Univ. of Ottawa Press, 2001. 143-160. [Taylor argues here for the reasons why Pecock’s anti-Lollard arguments were themselves condemned as heretical. According to Taylor, Pecock “had a remarkable optimism in the capacity of human reason to understand religious discussion and scripture” (146). Radically, he believed that this extended even to the laity. This is why he wrote in English, and it is also why he ran afoul of the authorities and was forced to recant.]

—. Textual Situations: Three Medieval Manuscripts and their Readers. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. [Taylor discusses Lollardy in the context of one of the manuscripts here, BL MS Royal 10.E.4, the Smithfield Decretals. He uses the conflict on the ms page between the text, which is meant to regulate society, and the marginalia, which depict an often very disorderly society, to open up an examination of the 1381 peasant’s revolt and its attribution to the Lollards; as Stephen Justice (in Writing and Rebellion) and others have discussed, the rebellion seems to mirror the later medieval divide between litterati and illiterati.]

Taylor, Henry W.S. “Lollards, Origin of the Term.” Notes and Queries 2nd Ser. 62 (Mar. 7, 1857): 192-93. [An interesting article because, among other theories, it refers to the nineteenth-century idea that the term “lollard” was originally a proper name. (> 1mb)]

Taylor, Jamie K. Fictions of Evidence: Witnessing, Literature, and Community in the Late Middle Ages. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2013. [From the publisher: “Through close study of texts like the Man of Law’s Tale and Piers Plowman alongside sermon exempla, common law statutes, and pastoral treatises, Fictions of Evidence argues that devotional and legal witnessing practices offered medieval writers a distinct vocabulary they could use to expose how the ethical and legal obligations to one’s community were constructed. And since vernacular writers often challenged the ways ecclesiastical or secular authorities asserted community bonds, they found they could use those same witnessing practices and language to imagine extra-legal or extra-ecclesiastical communities that followed different ethical codes.”]

Terasawa, Yoshio. “A Rhetorical Spoken Style of M.E.: The Case of Wyclif’s Sermon Translation.” Studies in English Literature (1968): 61-81.

—. “The Epistle to the Ephesians in a Manuscript of the Wycliffite Bible (EV).” Seisho to Eibungaku o Megutte. Ed. T. Yamamoto. Tokyo: Pedilavium, 1982.

—. “Wyclif to Lollard Bible: Kenkyu no Genkyo to Kadai.” Eigo Seinen 130 (1984): 374-376.

Tew, Tony, dir. John Wycliffe: The Morning Star. Perf. John Howell. Gateway Films, 1984.

Thamm, Walter. “Das Relativpronomen in der Bibelübersetzung Wyclifs und Purveys.” Dissertation. Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin, 1908. [1.4 mb]

Thomas, Alfred. Anne’s Bohemia: Czech Literature and Society, 1310-1420. Minnesota: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1997. [Specifically relevant to Lollardy, in chapter 2 Thomas considers the influence of women upon reform movements in Bohemia. Later, in section of his chapter 9, he considers a misogynistic poem entitled “The Wycliffite Woman (Vikelifice), . . . central to [which] is the identification of heresy with the snares of the female body” (143).]

—. A Blessed Shore: England and Bohemia from Chaucer to Shakespeare. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2007. [Chapter 3, entitled “Master Adversary:’ Wyclif’s Influence in Bohemia,” traces “the reception of ideas” of Wyclif “with special reference to the thought of John Hus and Peter Chelčický, the two most prolific and articulate spokesmen of the Bohemian reform movement” (98). Hus, who was in fact much more conservative than Wyclif, was especially worried about church corruption; and Chelčický, in the next generation, was more radical than either Wyclif or Hus, espousing complete separation of church and state and an absolute pacifism. Chapter 4 is “‘The Wycliffite Woman’: Reading Women in Fifteenth-Century Bohemia.” One problem, Thomas notes, “in reconstructing the historical role of women in the Hussite movement–and for that matter in English Lollardy–is the antifeminine and anti-heretical bias of most of the sources,” a point noted as well by Somerset, above. As a focus for his argument Thomas concentrates especially on the Czech anti-Hussite tract “Viklefice,” or “The Wycliffite Woman” (which he also discussed in his earlier book, and which he translates here in full) and much more briefly on a misogynistic Czech satire entitled “The Beguines.” Arguing against the critical assumption that “Bohemian women were innately drawn to Hussite teachings,” Thomas says that “a close attention to the medieval sources suggests that the situation of women in Bohemia was altogether more complicated” (122). Anxieties about female readership were “virtually inseparable from orthodox attempts to control lay access to the Bible” (132); Wyclif himself, in fact, had cited the example of of Anne of Bohemia’s ownership of several biblical translations in his De Triplici Vinculo Amoris [ed. Buddenseig, Polemical Works, vol. 1]; such anxiety, Thomas argues, is precisely what the imagery in “Viklefice” depicts.]

Thomson, J.A.F. “A Lollard Rising in Kent: 1431 or 1438?” Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 37 (1964): 100-02.

—. “John Foxe and Some Sources for Lollard History: Notes for a Critical Reappraisal.” Studies in Church History 2. Ed. G.J. Cuming. London: Nelson, 1965. 251-57.

—. The Later Lollards, 1414-1520. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1965.

—. “Orthodox Religion and the Origins of Lollardy.” History 74 (1989): 39-55.

—. “Knightly Piety and the Margins of Lollardy.” Aston and Richmond 95-111.

Thomson, J. Radford. The Life and Work of John Wiclif. London: Joseph Toulson, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death. (1.5 mb)]

Thomson, S. Harrison. “Some Latin Works Erroneously Ascribed to Wyclif.” Speculum 3 (1928): 382-391.

—. “The Order of Writing of Wyclif’s Philosophical Works.” Ceskou Minulostí. Ed. O. Odlozilík et al. Prague, 1929. 146-165.

—. “The Philosophical Basis of Wyclif’s Theology.” Journal of Religion 11.2 (January 1931): 86-116.

—. “A Gonville and Caius Wyclif Manuscript.” Speculum 8 (1933): 197-204.

—. “Pre-Hussite Heresy in Bohemia.” English Historical Review (1933): 23-42.

—. “Unnoticed Manuscripts and Works of Wyclif.” Journal of Theological Studies 38 (1937): 24-36, 139-48.

—. “Wyclif or Wyclyf?” English Historical Review 53 (1938): 675-8.

—. “Unnoticed Manuscripts of Wyclyf’s De Veritate Sacre Scripture.” Medium Aevum 12 (1943): 68-70.

—. “A Note on Peter Payne and Wyclyf.” Medievalia et Humanistica o.s. 16 (1964): 60-3.

—. “Later Medieval Reform: John Wyclyf.” Reformers in Profile. Ed. B.A. Gerrish. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1967. 12-39.

Thomson, Williell R. “An Unknown Letter by John Wyclyf in Manchester, John Rylands University Library MS. Eng. 86.” Mediaeval Studies 43 (1981): 531-37.

—. “Manuscripta Wyclifiana Desiderata: The Potential Contribution of Missing Latin Texts to our Image of Wyclif’s Life and Works.” Hudson and Wilks 343-351.

Thompson, A. Hamilton. The English Clergy and their Organisation in the Later Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1947.

Thompson, E. M. Wycliffe Exhibition at the King’s Library. London: British Museum, 1884. [The catalog of an exhibition to mark the quincentenary of his death.]

Thompson, John J. “Bagpipes and Patterns of Conformity in Late Medieval England.” Everyday Objects: Medieval and Early Modern Material Culture and its Meanings. Ed. Tara Hamling and Catherin Richardson. Farnham: Ashgate, 2010. 221-230. [This essay features analysis of an image in the royal presentation copy of Roger Dymok’s Liber contra duodecim errors et hereses Lollardorum that, according to Thompson, portrays Lollards as a threat to royal power. The author also briefly discusses William Thorpe’s references to bagpipes in his criticism of pilgrimage.]

Tierney, Brian. “‘Sola Scriptura’ and the Canonists.” Collectanae Stephan Kuttner I, Studia Gratiana Post Octava Decreti Saecularia XI. Ed. I. Forchielli and A. M. Stickler. Bologna, 1967. 347-66.

—. Religion, Law, and the Growth of Constitutional Thought 1150-1650. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982.

—. “Tuck on Rights: Some Medieval Problems.” History of Political Thought 4.3 (Winter, 1983): 429-411.

—. “Origins of Natural Rights Language: Texts and Contexts 1150-1250.” History of Political Thought 10.4 (Winter, 1989): 615-646.

—. “Marsilius on Rights.” Journal of the History of Ideas 52 (1991): 3-17.

—. The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law, and Church Law 1150-1625. Emory University Studies on Law and Religion 5. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997. [Tierney spends much of his study with Ockham, though he begins with Roman law and looks ahead to Gerson and into the early modern period in the work of, for instance, Grotius and discussions of the natural rights of native Americans, as in de las Casas. While he mentions Wyclif in his discussion of Ockham (to note that both were critics of the papacy, despite their philosophical differences), mention of Wyclif’s thought appears most often in his comparison with Gerson. Wyclif had argued that “since the rulers of the church were evidently corrupt, they had forfeited all their rights as prelates. They could exercise no licit dominion–rulership or ownership–over the church or its property” (229). Gerson, countering this, argued that “loss of evangelical dominion did not imply the loss of natural dominion or human dominion . . . it was not lost simply because it’s owner fell into sin. David did not lose his right of kingship when he committed adultery. It was the same with a sinful pope” (232).]

Töpfer, Bernhard. “Lex Christi, dominum und kirchliche Hierarchie bei Johannes Hus im Vergleich mit John Wyklif.” Seibt, et al. 157-65.

—. “Die Wertung der weltlich-staatlichen Ordnung durch John Wyclif und Jan Hus.” Šmahel and Müller-Luckner 55-76.

Towne, Frank. “Wyclif and Chaucer on the Contemplative Life.” Essays Critical and Historical Dedicated to Lily B. Campbell. 1950; rprt. New York: Russell and Russell, 1968. 3-14. [Using the English Wycliffite sermons and the Summoner’s Tale, Towne discusses anti-fraternalism in “Wyclif” and Chaucer, arguing that their stances are similar.]

Trapp, Damasus. “Unchristened Nominalism and Wycliffite Realism at Prague in 1381.” Recherches de Theologie ancienne et medievale 24 (1957): 320-60.

Traver, Hope. The Four Daughters of God, A Study of the Versions of This Allegory . . . . A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of Bryn Mawr College for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 1907. [2.0 mb]

Treschow, Michael. “On Aristotle and the Cross at the Center of Creation: John Wyclif’s De Benedicta Incarnacione, Chapter Seven.” Crux 33 (1977): 28-37.

Tresko, Michael. “John Wyclif’s Metaphysics of Scriptural Integrity in the De Veritate Sacrae Scripturae.” Dionysius 13 (Dec. 1989): 153-96.

Trevelyan, G.M. England in the Age of Wycliffe. New Edition. London: Longmans, 1909. [This was reprinted after 1909 as well. (7.8 mb)]

Trivedi, Kalpen D. “Traditionality and difference: a study of the textual traditions of the ‘Pore Caitif.'” Ph.D Thesis, University of Manchester, 2002.

—. “The Pore Caitif: Lectio through Compilatio. Some Manuscript Contexts.” Framing the Text. Ed. K.L. Boardman, Catherine Emmerson, and A.P. Tudor. Medievalia 20 (2001): 129-52. [Trivedi examines two closely related manuscripts from the “orthodox” versions of the Pore Caitif and details the very different circumstances of their production and dissemination.]

Trtik, Zdenek. “Jan Hus als philosophischer Realist.” Theologische-Zeitschrift 28 (1972): 263-75.

Tuck, Anthony J. “Carthusian Monks and Lollard Knights: Religious Attitudes at the Court of Richard II.” Studies in the Age of Chaucer 1 (1984): 149-61.

Tuck, Richard. Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1979.

Twemlow, J.A. “Wycliffe’s Preferments and University Degrees.” English Historical Review 15 (1900): 529-30. [>1 mb]

Tyler, C. Tares and Wheat: A Memorial of John Wycliffe. London, 1897.

Tytler, Patrick. The Life of John Wickliff, with an Appendix and List of his Works. Edinburgh: William Whyte, 1826. [An early biography. (2.9 mb)]

Utz, Richard J. “‘For All That Comth, Comth by Necessitee’: Chaucer’s Critique of Fourteenth-Century Boethianism in Troilus and Criseyde IV, 957-58.” Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 21.1 (1996): 29-32.

Vale, M.G.A. Piety, Charity, and Literacy Among the Yorkshire Gentry, 1370-1480. York: Borthwick Papers, no. 50, 1976.

van Dussen, Michael. “Conveying Heresy: ‘A Certayne Student’ and the Lollard-Hussite Fellowship.” Viator 38.2 (2007): 217-34. [Abstract: “Lollard-Hussite relations in the early fifteenth century cannot accurately be described in terms of English initiation and Bohemian reception. Evidence from a series of Anglo-Czech epistolary exchanges and from later accounts of the correspondence indicates that a mutually beneficial fellowship existed. Documents pertaining to the correspondence reveal a keen interest in Bohemian affairs on the part of English Lollards, and a level of bilateral communication that extends beyond textual exchange to more personal levels of interaction. Central to this fellowship were the efforts of the Bohemian student Mikuláš Faulfiš as courier. This study proposes that he made as many as three trips to England, and that in his role as intermediary he was largely responsible for enabling the exchange of tidings and texts. His death in 1411 may also have contributed (among other causes) to the ensuing halt in correspondence between English and Czech reformers.”]

—. From England to Bohemia: Heresy and Communication in the Later Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press , 2012. [Abstract: “This is the first book-length study of the influential cultural and religious exchanges which took place between England and Bohemia following Richard II’s marriage to Anne of Bohemia in 1382. The ensuing growth in communication between the two kingdoms initially enabled new ideas of religion to flourish in both countries but eventually led the English authorities to suppress heresy. This exciting project has been made possible by the discovery of new manuscripts after the opening up of Czech archives over the past twenty years. It is the only study to analyze the Lollard-Hussite exchange with an eye to the new opportunities for international travel and correspondence to which the Great Schism gave rise, and examines how the use of propaganda and The Council of Constance brought an end to this communication by securing the condemnation of heretics such as John Wyclif.”]

van Engen, Jan. “Anticlericalism among the Lollards.” Anticlericalism in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Ed. Peter Dykema and Heiko A. Oberman. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993. 53-63.

Varley, H. John Wyclif: A Chapter from English Church History. London, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death.]

Vasold, Manfred. Fruhling im Mittelalter: John Wyclif und sein Jahrhundert. Munich: List, 1984.

Vassilev, Georgi. “Bogomils and Lollards: Dualistic Motives in England during the Later Middle Ages.” Etudes Balkaniques 1 (1993): 97-111.

—. “Traces of the Bogomil Movement in English.” Etudes Balkaniques 3 (1994): 85-94.

—. “Bogomils, Cathars, Lollards, and the High Social Position of Women during the Middle Ages.” Facta Universitatis. Series Philosophy and Sociology 2.7 (2000): 325-36.

—. “John Wycliffe, the Dualists and the Cyrillo-Methodian Version of the New Testament.” Études balkaniques 37.1 (2001): 99-118.

Vattier, Victor. John Wyclyff, D.D.: Sa Vie, Ses Oeurvres, Sa Doctrine. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1886. [A relatively academic biography, including a list of his known works. One of the only studies in French. (4.5 mb)]

Vaughan, Robert. The Life and Opinions of John De Wycliffe D. D. 2 vols. 2nd ed. London: Holdsworth and Ball, 1831. [With the later biography by Lechler, this and his 1845 biography, below, are seminal biographies of Wyclif to which many of the derivative quincentary biographies refer. For a contemporary review, see “Wiclif and his Works,” included below. vol. 1 (6.9 mb); vol. 2 (6 mb)]

John De Wycliffe: A Monograph. London: Seeleys, 1853. [Note also that Vaughan published an 1845 edition of Wyclif’s works that can be found on the Bibliography of Primary Sources. (8.7 mb)]

—. English Nonconformity. London: Jackson, Walford, and Hodder, 1862. [This book was published on the bicentennial of the 1662 Act of Uniformity and the dissident reaction to it. The first part traces nonconformity back to the medieval period. Also see Clark, History of English Nonconformity, above. (9.4 mb)]

“The Wycliffe Manuscripts.” The Eclectic Review n.s. 13 (January-June 1843): 1-30. [This is a review article of three recent publications, two by James H. Todd (both included on the Bibliography of Primary Sources), and one by S.A.J. De Reuver Groneman (included above). Despite the headers, “Dr. Vaughan and Dr. Todd” are not the authors, but the subjects of the article. Here is a later reprint. (>1 mb). This article is itself reviewed, with 10 other publications, in “Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics,” British Quarterly Review 28 (1858), included below.]

Vidmanova, Anezka. “Autoritaten und Wiclif in Hussens homiletischen Schriften.” Zimmermann 383-93.

Vincent, Diane. “The Contest over the Public Imagination of Inquisition, 1380-1430.” Flannery and Walker 60-76.

Voaden, Rosalynn. “Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: Margery Kempe as Underground Preacher.” Romance and Rhetoric: Essays in Honour of Dhira B. Mahoney. Ed. Georgiana Donavin and Anita Obermeier. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. 109-121. [Voaden describes Margery Kempe’s travels around England as an “underground preaching tour.” In the midst of making her argument, she discusses the association of female preaching with Lollardy as well as Thomas Netter’s disapproval of Kempe.]

Voegelin, Eric. The Collected Works of Eric Voegelin. Ed. David Walsh. Volume 21. The History of Political Ideas, Volume III: The Later Middle Ages. Columbia: Univ. of Missouri Press, 1998.

von Nolcken, Christina. “Some Alphabetical Compendia and How Preachers Used Them in Fourteenth-Century England.” Viator 12 (1981): 271-88.

—. “An Unremarked Group of Wycliffite Sermons in Latin.” Modern Philology 83 (1986): 233-49.

—. “Another Kind of Saint: A Lollard Perception of John Wyclif.” Hudson and Wilks 429-43.

—. “Piers Plowman, the Wycliffites, and Pierce the Plowman’s Creed.” Yearbook of Langland Studies 2 (1988): 71-102.

—. “Wyclif in Our Times: The Wyclif Sexcentenary, 1984.” Yearbook of Langland Studies 2 (1988): 143-54.

—. “Richard Wyche, A Certain Knight, and the Beginning of the End.” Aston and Richmond 127-154.

—. “Lay Literacy, the Democritization of God’s Law, and the Lollards.” The Bible as Book: The Manuscript Tradition. Ed. K. Van Kampen and John L. Sharpe III. London: British Library, 1998. 177-95.

—. “Notes on Lollard Citation of John Wyclif’s Writings.” Journal of Theological Studies n.s. 39.2 (October, 1998): 411-37.

—. “A ‘Certain Sameness’ and our Response to it in English Wycliffite Texts.” R. Newhauser and John Alford, eds. Literature and Religion in the Later Middle Ages: Philological Studies in Honor of Siegfried Wenzel. Binghamton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1995. 191-208.

—. “The Recluse and its Readers: Some Observations on a Lollard Interpolated Version of Ancrene Wisse.” In A Companion to Ancrene Wisse ed. Yoka Wada (Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2003) 175-196. [This is an introduction and a new argument to work on the Cambridge, Pepys MS 2498 version of the Ancrene Wisse. Von Nolcken reviews Colledge’s arguments about the inconsistent interpolations to the text, and notes that Hudson has suggested that the text had been through several stages of revision. Von Nolcken takes these “discontinuities” as an opportunity to re-examine it anew in an examination of its likely readerships, which was likely theologically erudite and awake to of lexical and semantic shifts–she concentrates on the meaning of “antiquitas” and “church” especially. Von Nolcken suggests that the text assumes a sympathetic reader, one who “would have found themselves cooperating in the construction of what its latest redactor would surely have considered a ‘right’ reading even of those parts that he has left seemingly untouched” (191).]

Vyšný, Paul. “A Hussite in Scotland: The Mission of Pavel Kravař to St. Andrews in 1433.” Scottish Historical Review 82.1 (Apr. 2003): 1-19.

Wager, Charles A. “Pecock’s Repressor and the Wiclif Bible.” Modern Language Notes 9 (Apr. 1894): 97-9. [>1 mb]

Wagner, Erin. “Deferential Heresy: Reginald Pecock, William Thorpe, John Oldcastle, and the Danger of Deferring to Episcopal Authority in Late Medieval England.” Essays in Medieval Studies 29 (2013): 85-102. [Based on accounts of the heresy trials of Pecock, Thorpe, and Oldcastle, Wagner argues for their dedication to the church, suggesting they employed “a rhetoric of deference alongside their expressions of resistance to create a complex defense of innocent orthodoxy.”]

Wakelin, Daniel. “Religion, Humanism, and Humanity: Chaundler’s Dialogues and the Winchester Secretum.” Gillespie and Ghosh 225-244. [Wakelin explores the relationship between studia humanitatis and pastoral and theological thought in fifteenth century England. Although many associate humanism with the Reformation in the sixteenth century, Wakelin notes that some who read classical texts in the fifteenth centuries also “managed to combine humanist interests with attacks on heresy.”]

Walker, G. “Saint or Schemer? The 1527 Heresy Trial of Thomas Bilney Reconsidered.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 40.2 (1989): 219-38.

—. “Heretical Sects in Pre-Reformation England.” History Today 43 (May, 1993): 42-48.

Wallace, David. “Dante in Somerset: Ghosts, Historiography, Periodization.” Lawton, Copeland, and Scase 9-38.

Walsh, Katherine. “The Manuscripts of Archbishop Richard Fitzralph of Armagh in the österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.” Römische historiche Mitteilungen 18 (1976): 67-75.

—. A Fourteenth Century Scholar and Primate: Richard FitzRalph of Oxford, Avignon, and Armagh. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1981.

—. “Vom Wegestreit zur Häresie: Zur Auseinandersetzung um die Lehre John Wyclifs in Wien un Prage an der Wende zum 15. Jahrhundert.” Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung 94 (1986): 25-47.

—. “Wyclif’s Legacy in Central Europe in the Late Fourteenth and Early Fifteenth Centuries.” Hudson and Wilks 397-417.

—. “Die Rezeption der Schriften des Richard Fitzralph (Ardmacanus) im lollardisch-hussistischen Milieu.” Das Publikum politischer Theorie im 14. Jahrhundert, ed. Jürgen Miethke. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1992. 237-53.

—. “Die englische Universität nach Wyclif: Von geistiger Kreativität zur Beamtenausbildung?” Die Universität in Alteuropa, ed. Alexander Patschovsky and Horst Rabe. Constance: Universitätsverlag Konstanz, 1994. 85-110.

—. “Ecce arbor in medie terre. Ein irische Prälat an der Prager Juristenuniversität, das ‘Purgatorium sancti Patricii,’ und die Dbatta um das Fegefeuer.” Pánek, Polívka, and Rejchrtová 167-90.

—. “Lollardisch-hussitische Reformbestrebunge im Umkreis und Gefolgschaft der Luxemburgerin Anna, Köningin von England (1382-1394).” Šmahel and Müller-Luckner 77-108.

Warner, Anthony. “Infinitive Markings in the Wyclifite Sermons.” English Studies 56 (1975): 207-14.

—. Complementation in Middle English and the Methodology of Historical Syntax: a Study of the Wyclifite Sermons. University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 1982.

Walsham, Alexandra. “Inventing the Lollard Past: The Afterlife of a Medieval Sermon in Early Modern England.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 58.4 (Oct. 2007): 628-55. [Abstract: “This essay explores the evolving significance of a famous fourteenth-century Paul’s Cross sermon by Thomas Wimbledon in late medieval and early modern England and its transmission from manuscript to print. It highlights the ideological ambiguity of the text against the backdrop of the academic Wycliffite challenge and shows how it illuminates the permeability of the boundary between heterodoxy and orthodoxy in the fifteenth century. It then examines how the sermon was revived and published in the mid-Tudor period as a Lollard tract as part of an effort to supply the new Protestant religion with on historical pedigree and how it subsequently entered into the popular stock of commercial publishers. The afterlife of Wimbledon’s celebrated sermon sheds fresh light on the ongoing process of inventing and re-inventing the pre-Reformation past.”]

Warren, Martin L. Asceticism in the Christian Transformation of Self in Margery Kempe, William Thorpe, and John Rogers. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2003. [This study examines three texts to show how the practice of asceticism leads to the creation of self and self-narration: the Book of Margery Kempe, the Examination of William Thorpe, and John Rogers’s Ohel or Beth-Shemesh. Chapters 3 and 4 will be of particular interest. Chapter 3, “William Thorpe: A Self-Textualization in the Style of Heroic Hagiography of the Eremitic Ascetics,” argues that Thorpe’s Testimony follows the tradition of the Life of Saint Anthony. Chapter 4, “John Rogers: The “Confession of Experience” as a “Technology of the Self,” argues that “Calvinism continues the work of Lollardy in terms of the individual’s access the Scripture” (97).]

Watkins, Renee Neu. “The Death of Jerome of Prague: Divergent Views.” Speculum 42.1 (1967): 104-29.

Watkinson, W.L. John Wicklif. London: T. Woolmer, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of his death. (2.8 mb)]

Watson, Nicholas. Richard Rolle and the Invention of Authority. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1991.

—. “Censorship and Cultural Change in Late-Medieval England: Vernacular Theology, The Oxford Translation Debate, and Arundel’s Constitutions of 1409.” Speculum 70.4 (October 1995): 822-864. [An influential article which argues for a deadening effect on “vernacular theology,” lay religious literature in English, caused by Arundel’s 1407/09 Constitutions.]

—. “Conceptions of the Word: The Mother Tongue and the Incarnation of God.” Scase, Copeland, and Lawton 85-124.

—. “Introduction: King Solomon’s Tablets.” Somerset and Watson 1-13.

—. “Vernacular Apocalyptic: On The Lanterne of Liyt.” Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 47 (2003): 115-27.

—. “Lollardy: The Anglo-Norman Heresy?” Language and Culture in Medieval Britain: The French of England, c.1100-c.1500. Ed. Jocelyn Wogan-Browne. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 2009. 334-46. [Watson deliberately echoes Hudson’s article “Lollardy: the English Heresy” in his title to provoke consideration of how many popular vernacular English religious treatises are indebted to Anglo-Norman origins, as the descendants into popular religious culture of, for instance, the Somme le Roi can attest–one among many devotional, literary, and biblical texts Watson cites. Given all of this, Watson asks for further consideration of how later medieval English religious controversies descend from the translation of Anglo-Norman texts and practices.]

Waters, Claire. “Talking the Talk: Access to the Vernacular in Medieval Preaching.” Somerset and Watson 31-42. [Waters examines preacher’s divided linguistic allegiances–between their own Latin, and the vernacular of their audiences. She examines preaching handbooks by Thomas of Chobham and Humbert of Romans to argue that the boundary between Latin and the vernaculars was often less clear than commonly understood, and that “the preacher’s need both to distinguish himself from and to resemble his flock, and hence the importance of the vernacular in establishing a clerical identity often seen in opposition to it” (32).]

Waugh, W.T. “Sir John Oldcastle.” English Historical Review 20 (1905): 434-56, 637-58. [1 mb]

—. “The Lollard Knights.” Scottish Historical Review 11 (1913-14): 55-92.

Wawn, Andrew N. “The Genesis of the Plowman’s Tale.” Yearbook of English Studies 2 (1972): 21-40.

—. “Chaucer, Wyclif, and the Court of Apollo.” English Language Notes 10 (1972): 15-20.

—. “Chaucer, The Plowman’s Tale, and Reformation Propoganda: The Testimonies of Thomas Godfray and I Playne Piers.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 56 (1973-74): 174-92.

Welch, E. “Three Sussex Heresy Trials.” Sussex Archaeological Collections 95 (1957): 59-70.

—. “Some Suffolk Lollards.” Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 29 (1962): 154-65.

Wenzel, Siegfried. Verses in Sermons. Cambridge, MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1978.

—. Macaronic Sermons: Bilingualism and Preaching in Late Medieval England. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1994.

—. “Academic Sermons at Oxford in the Early Fifteenth Century.” Speculum 70.2 (April, 1995): 305-329.

—. “A New Version of Wyclif’s ‘Sermones Quadraginta.'” Journal of Theological Studies 49 (April, 1998): 154-60.

—. “Robert Lychlade’s Oxford Sermon of 1395 (Lollard Sympathies and Heretical Teachings in England).” Traditio 53 (1998): 203-30.

—. Latin Sermon Collections from Later Medieval England: Orthodox Preaching in the Age of Wyclif. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 53. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005.

Werrell, Ralph S. The Theology of William Tyndale. Cambridge: James Clark, 2006. [“resents a description of Tyndale’s theological importance. This work acknowledges that the great reformer was influenced by continental theology, and focuses on the richness of the man’s intellectual background. His theological roots lie in the Lollard tradition, but his expression and thrust show that there was a lot more to this man.”]

Westin, Gunnar. John Wyclif och has Reformidéer. 2 vols. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1936.

Westphall, Allan F. “Reconstructing the Mixed Life in Reginald Pecock’s Reule of Crysten Religioun.” Gillespie and Ghosh 267-284. [Westphall characterizes Pecock’s criticisms of Lollardy in The Repressor as “just one part, and possibly a minor part, of a coherent and determined attempt to re-imagine a Christian community founded on ideas of critical intellectualism and lay-clerical exchange. Turning to the lesser-studied Reule of Crysten Religioun, he describes how Pecock’s concept of the “hool lijf” extends yet differs from the “mixed life” concept promoted by Walter Hilton.]

White, Helen C. Social Criticism in Popular Religious Literature of the Sixteenth Century. New York: Macmillan, 1944.

Whitney, James P. “A Note on the Work of the Wyclif Society.” Essays in History Presented to Reginald Lane Poole. Ed. Henry W.C. Davis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1927. 98-114.

“Wiclif.” The Saturday Magazine 16.487 (Feb. 1, 1840): 43-44. [A brief biography published in a popular magazine which captures many contemporary stereotypes. (> 1mb)]

“Wiclif and his Works.” Quarterly Review 168 (Jan & April 1889): 502-31. [A review article of 17 contemporary biographies and editions. (>1 mb)]

Wiegand, Friedrich. “De Ecclesiae Notione quid Wiclif Docuerit.” Dissertation. Academia Friderico-Alexandrina Erlangensi. Lipsiae [Leipzig], 1891. [2.2 mb]

Wigston, Katrina Suzanne. “Representations of Satan in 16th Century Scotland.” MA Thesis, Dept. of Religion, Concordia University, 2004. AAT MQ91139. [Abstract: “Scotland in the century was a highly unstable country, both politically and religiously. As a result of a weak monarch, corrupt papacy, an increase of literacy, and the strong leadership of a few individuals, Scotland experienced a Protestant Reformation that began in the early 16th century and ended in the 1560’s. John Knox was the leader of the Reformation, and this thesis focuses predominantly on his life and contribution to the Reformation within Scotland. Reformation also occurred throughout Europe, with other leaders arising to create different forms of Protestantism. Martin Luther, who has been acknowledged as the original Protestant reformer, and Jean Calvin, whose understanding of Protestantism was both unique and influential, heavily affected John Knox’s theological beliefs. This thesis examines the effect Luther and Calvin had on Knox in regards to both his reformation beliefs, and his understanding of Satan. The final section of this thesis summarizes the effect that Luther and Calvin had on Knox’s beliefs regarding Satan, and also examines John Wyclif and the Lollards as potentially being a strong influence on the Scottish reformer’s beliefs regarding the anti-Christ. Finally, Knox’s beliefs are explained as being characteristic of much of Scotland, and although Scotland was in many ways a Calvinist country, Martin Luther predominantly influenced Scotland’s beliefs regarding the anti-Christ.”]

Wilcox, Karl. “Chaucer and the Politics of Penance.” Ph.D. Diss., University of Nevada-Las Vegas, 2005. [From the abstract: “The case is made that Chaucer critiques Ricardian autocracy by employing penitential discourse as a possible corrective to Richard’s exemplarism or use of positive exempla to suppress political dissent. Chaucer is joined in this emphasis on the politics of penance by the Carmelite Richard Maidstone whose 1390s account of Richard II’s London re-entry pageant similarly employs penance to warn the king of the dangers inherent to exemplary politics or a political program that exaggerates the king’s virtues. In Chaucer’s Legend of Good Women penitential values merge with Lollard translation values to produce Chaucer’s concept of the “naked” text, a literary program that imagines how penance and heresy might be used to invent English as a literary language. This program finds further expression in Chaucer Canterbury Tales where the figure of the Parson combines Lollardy with penance to hopefully release Chaucer from both orthodox and heretical ideologies to pursue a literature of penitential humility and heretical independence.”]

Wilks, Michael. “The Apostolicus and the Bishop of Rome.” Journal of Theological Studies n.s. 13 (1962): 290-317; 14 (1963): 311-54.

—. The Problem of Sovereignty in the Later Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1963.

—. “Predestination, Property, and Power: Wyclif’s Theory of Dominion and Grace.” G.J. Cuming, ed. Studies in Church History 2. London: Blackwell, 1965. 220-236. Rpt. in Wilks 16-32.

—. “The Early Oxford Wyclif: Papalist or Nominalist?” Cuming 69-98. Rpt. in Wilks 33-62.

—. “Reformatio Regni: Wyclif and Hus as Leaders of Religious Protest Movements.” Baker, Schism 109-130. Rpt. in Wilks 63-84.

—. “Misleading Manuscripts: Wyclif and the Non-Wycliffite Bible.” Baker, Materials 147-61. Rpt. in Wilks 85-100.

—. “Royal Priesthood: The Origins of Lollardy.” The Church in a Changing Society: Conflict—Reconciliation or Adjustment? CIHEC Conference in Uppsala, 1977. Uppsala: Uppsala Univ., 1978. 63-70. Rpt. in Wilks 101-116.

—. “Royal Patronage and Anti-papalism from Ockham to Wyclif.” Hudson and Wilks 135-164. Rpt. in Wilks 117-146.

—. “Thesaurus Ecclesiae [Wyclif’s Views on Wealth].” Sheils and Wood, Church and Wealth xv-xlv. Rpt. in Wilks 147-178.

—. “Wyclif and the Great Persecution.” Prophecy and Eschatology. Ed. Michael Wilks. Studies in Church History 10. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1994. 39-63. Rpt. in Wilks 179-204.

—. “Wyclif and the Wheel of Time.” The Church Retrospective. Ed. R.N. Swanson. Studies in Church History 33. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1997. 177-93. Rpt. in Wilks 205-222.

—. “Thomas Arundel of York: The Appellant Archbishop.” Wood, Life and Thought 57-86; rpt. in Wilks 223-252.

—. “John Wyclif, Reformer, c. 1327-1384.” Wilks 1-15.

–. “Roman Candle or Damned Squib? The English Crusade of 1383.” Wilks 253-72.

Wilkins, H.J. Was John Wyclif a Negligent Pluralist? Also John de Trevisa, His Life and Work. London: Longmans, Green, 1915. [7.2 mb]

Williams, Arnold. “Chaucer and the Friars.” Speculum 28.3 (1953): 499-513.

Williams, C.H. William Tyndale. London: Thomas Nelson, 1969.

Willoughby, James. “Common Libraries in Fifteenth-Century England: An Episcopal Benefaction.” Gillespie and Ghosh 209-222. [Willoughby discusses the rare “public” library in late medieval England, describing their foundation in London, Worcester, Bristol, and Norwich. He suggests their roots may stretch back to a cluster of scholars at Oriel College and characterizes the libraries as “institutions of reform, with a concern for right teaching at their core.”]

Wilson, Adrian, and Joyce Lancaster. A Medieval Mirror: Speculum Humane Salvationis, 1324-1500. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1984. [This is on-line here at eScholarship editions.]

Wilson, John Laird. John Wycliffe, Patriot and Reformer. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death. (3 mb)]

Winkelmann, Johannes C.A. Gerson, Wiclefus, Hussus inter se et cum Reformatoribus comparati. Gottingen, 1857. [An essay written for a competition sponsored by the Theological Faculty of Gottingen; for another winning entry see the essay with the same title by Arminio Jeep, above. For a contemporary review of this and 10 other publications, see “Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics,” British Quarterly Review 28 (1858), included below. Winkelmann (1.5 mb) ]

Winstead, Karen A. “Chaucer’s Parson’s Tale and the Contours of Orthodoxy.” Chaucer Review 43.3 (2009): 239-59. [Winstead argues that “departing from the practices of contemporary penitential texts, Chaucer reduces radically both the presence of the priest in the text and the importance of oral confession in the penitential process. . . . Chaucer uses a genre whose orthodoxy would have been taken for granted by many to offer a richer, more liberal, definition of orthodoxy, recovering a tradition of penitential thought that had been elided in vernacular tracts” (240-41).  In the article Winstead shows this by illustrating changes between Chaucer’s tract and several contemporary works (the Way to Paradise, the Book of Penance, and the Cleansing of Man’s Soul) and to his source in Pennaforte’s Summa do poenitentia.  She also shows how the tale’s notion of penance becomes close to several other contemporary works, Julian of Norwich’s Showings, Eleanor Hull’s commentary on the seven penitential psalms, and the Book of Margery Kempe.]

Wlodek, Zofia. “Les Idees Theologico-politiques dans l’ecclesiologie de Thomas Netter Waldensis.” Soziale Ordnungen im Selbstverständnis des Mittelalters. Ed. Albert Zimmermann. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1980. 439-448.

—. “Der Begriff des Seins bei Thomas Netter von Walden.” Salzburger Jahrbuch für Philosophie 26-7 (1981-82): 103-16.

—. “Les Idees Cles de la Philosophie d L’etre chez Thomas Netter de Walden.” Studia Mediewistyczne 27:1 (1990): 1-30.

Wood, Douglas C. The Evangelical Doctor: John Wycliffe and the Lollards. Welwyn, Hertfordshire: Evangelical Press, 1984.

Wood, Rega, and Gideon Gál. “Richard Brinkley and his Summa Logica.” Franciscan Studies 40 (1980): 59-102.

Woolf, Rosemary. The English Mystery Plays. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972.

Wordsworth, Christopher. John Wiclif: His Doctrine and Work. An address at the Lincoln Diocesan Conference, on Thursday, October 16th, 1884. London: Williamson, 1884. [For a contemporary review, see “Wiclif and his Works,” included above. (1.7 mb)]

Workman, Herbert B. “The First English Bible.” London Quarterly Review 135 (1921): 187-99.

—. John Wyclif: A Study of the English Medieval Church. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1926. [Workman also published two volumes aimed at older “Bible Students” on “The Age of Wyclif” and “The Age of Hus,” both of which are included on the page of Lollard Fiction and Youth Literature.]

Wray, J. Jackson. John Wycliffe: A Quincentenary Tribute. London: James Nisbet, 1884. [One of several derivative biographies published on the quincentenary of Wyclif’s death. (1.8 mb)]

Wunderli, R. “Pre-Reformation Summoners and the Murder of Richard Hunne.” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 33 (1982): 209-24.

Wurtele, Douglas J. “The Anti-Lollardy of Chaucer’s Parson.” Mediaevalia 11 (1989, for 1985): 151-68.

“Wycliffe–His Biographers and Critics.” British Quarterly Review 28 (July and October, 1858): 360-422. [This is a review article of 11 recent publications.]

The Wycliffe Semi-Millenial Bible Celebration. Convention of Bible Societies of New Jersey, published by Order of the Convention. Trenton, 1880. [This volume contains a series of proceedings in Bible history and use, beginning with a paper on “The Life, Times, and Labors of Wycliffe” by James Strong. Other papers on linguistic and religous history also refer to Wycliffe. (4.6 mb)]

“Wycliffe.” The Illustrated Magazine of Art 2.7 (1853): 1-3. [>1 mb]

Wykliffe als Prediger. Erlangen, 1834. [12 mb]

Yonekura, H. The Language of the Wycliffite Bible: The Syntactic Differences between the Two Versions. Tokyo: Aratake Shuppan, 1985.

—. “John Purvey’s Version of the Wycliffite Bible: A Reconsideration of His Translation Method.” Studies in Medieval English Language and Literature 1 (1986): 67-91.

Young, Robert F. “Bohemian Scholars and Students at the English Universities from 1347-1750.” English Historical Review 38 (1923): 72-84.

Zamagni, Gianmaria. “Per scalam sapientiae: L’ermeneutica metafisica di John Wyclif.” Dianoia: Annali di Storia della Filosofia 9 (Dec. 2004): 43-57. [“This contribution aims to explain some complexities of John Wyclif’s hermeneutics tracing it back into its metaphysical background. The first step is the full comprehension of the theologian’s interpretation of the ‘philological’ problem of biblical codices: they were, in the fourteenth century, under sharp scholastic attack. In light of the fivefold typology of real universals, the five meanings of Scripture can be understood, and the problematic ontological statute of the ‘codices’ themselves has its significance in a ladder leading to the Scripture intended as ‘Liber vite,’ the Book of Life.”]

Zuckerman, Charles. “The Relationship of Theories of Universals to Theories of Church Government in the Middle Ages: A Critique of Previous Views.” Journal of the History of Ideas 35 (1975): 579-594.


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